Flooding is a natural disaster that has often hit thousands and even millions of people in all the world. Not infrequently floods take lives. Besides that it is life-threatening, and of course floods also result in not less financial losses. There are several types of causes of flood.
Floods caused by heavy rain are called natural floods, of course heavy rains are the most common reason for flooding. Besides that, natural causes, flooding can also be caused by human actions or unexpected things such as a broken dam. Read also kind of disasters in Indonesia
Here are 13 causes of floods in Indonesia :
1. High Rainfall
Heavy rains that occur continuously can cause water flooding in the streets and result in an increase in water in several water reservoirs. This sudden increase in water can cause water to overflow in some areas with low altitude, drowning some of these areas.
Coastal areas and areas with high rainfall are more vulnerable to flooding. Some areas with poor drainage systems are very vulnerable to flooding during the rainy season. You may also read facts about natural resources in Indonesia.
2. The Great Ocean Wave
There are two types of ocean waves that can cause flooding, namely tidal waves and tsunamis. Tidal waves are ocean waves caused by the attraction of the sun and moon. Tsunamis are ocean waves caused by undersea earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. These two waves can move very quickly and suddenly, obliterating everything they pass.
3. River Silting / Excessive Sedimentation
Rivers flowing into the sea also carry sediment and mud. After an uncertain period of time, the accumulated mud settles on the bottom of the river so the river has become shallow. Excessive silting causes the river to overflow, especially during the rainy season.
4. The Land Is Not Able to Absorb Water
The inability of the soil to absorb water, is due to the rare finding of green land or empty land. So that water goes straight into channels, lakes, rivers and ditches. The water in the ammount which is very large and heavy cannot be accommodated by these channels, then remembers and causes floods.
5. Incorrectly Manage Spatial Systems
By making mistakes in the spatial management system that causes water to be difficult to absorb and the flow is slow. While the amount of water that enters the area is more than what is normally flowed so that floods are easy. See also best city in Indonesia
Forests can help in absorbing excess water. Besides that, forests can help stop the flow of water. Due to the increasing human needs, trees are often cut down carelessly. Soil erosion also occurs due to the absence of strong trees that can hold the soil in place.
Because no one is holding back the flow of water, the river will fill up much faster so that it can cause the surrounding area to be flooded. Extremely deforestation often causes flash floods.
Garbage that is discarded carelessly can clog drains and fill the river. Construction of roads, buildings and bridges along the banks of the river also often results in debris being spread along the banks of rivers and on river beds.
The debris and rubbish caused the river water level to rise so that the river became more volatile, resulting in flooding in the surrounding area.
8. Land Reclamation
River & coastal areas are filled with sand and concrete walls built to limit the flow of water. With limited river space, the river becomes very easily overflowed and causes the surrounding area to flood.
9. Construction of Dam and Reservoir
Man-made dams are used as water storage reservoirs, power plants, and flood control. In rainy days, the water level of the reservoir can increase significantly, the dam will be opened when the water is high enough to prevent water from overflowing into the dam. Releasing excessive amounts of water will cause flooding in the surrounding area.
10. Drainage Changed Without Paying Amdal
Drainage is changed without regard to environmental impact analysis, especially in urban environments. Forest areas or swamps that should be able to help reduce the occurrence of floods, are used to build malls or others that can cause damage to the soil layer, so that floods will easily occur. Read also weather in Indonesia.
11. Broken Dam
Dams can break down if improper development or poor maintenance. Besides that, human error, the dam can break down due to the earthquake. Broken dams can cause major disasters. The dam collapsed will cause great flooding so quickly, life-threatening people who live around the collapsed dam.
12. The number of rivers
River is a place where water flows are not absorbed by the soil. The existence of a river is very important for human life. However, a wide and long river turned out to have a dangerous impact when the rainy season.
The amount of water entering the river is sometimes not able to be dammed by the river. So that floods occur. Large rivers in Indonesia that often cause major flooding are the Brantas River and the Ciliwung River in Jakarta. Read also popular rivers in Java island
13. Too many buildings
This last cause occurred in a big city. The building continues to make the community no longer think about whether there is a channel for water, or a river. The dense environment of buildings without regard to waterways is a flood-prone environment. Water does not have a place so that during the rainy season, water stagnates and causes flooding in the area.
Thats all 13 Causes of Floods in Indonesia. Flooding will not occur if Indonesian people change their lifestyle to care more about the environment. Starting in the past few years, greening has been heralded in Indonesia, even in urban areas.