Coral reefs are the variety of underwater ecosystems which built by colonies of tiny animals in marine water that contains a few nutrients. Etymologically, the term coral reefs refers to coral (the collection of animals from Scleratina order) and reef (sedimentary rocks in the ocean). The sedimentation itself can be derived from the limestone which is produced by corals. Indonesia as a country which has many islands and beaches, also has many beautiful coral reef locations which will amaze you.
See also : Underwater Temple in Bali
1. Bunaken National Park
Bunaken is an 8.08 km² island which is located in Manado Bay, exactly in the northern part of Sulawesi island. Bunaken sea park itself is a sea park located in Bunaken island which has of the highest marine marine biodiversity in the world.
This national park represents Indonesian tropical water ecosystems which composed of mangrove ecosystems, seagrass beds, coral reefs, and land or coastal ecosystems. There are about 91 species of fish found in this national park.
The fish such as fish gusumi horse (Hippocampus horse), white oci (Seriola rivoliana), yellow tail lolosi (Lutjanus kasmira), goropa (Ephinephelus spilotoceps and Pseudanthias hypselosoma), ila trunk (Scolopsis bilineatus), etc. This national park has 390 species of coal reefs consists of algae, seaweed, marine mammals, reptiles, birds, mollusks, and mangroves.
2. Raja Ampat
Raja ampat becomes one of the most famous tourist attractions in Indonesia. This island is a series of four group of islands clusters which is located in the western part of of Kepala Burung (Vogelkoop) in Papua island. Including as a part of cendrawasih Bay complex, a 4 millions hectares Raja Ampat island becomes the biggest marine park in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat is the richest and the most diverse in the world’s coral triangle region (Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea). What is coral triiangle region? It is the nickname for the countries which becomes the heart of coral reef in the world therefore those regions are protected and being an natural conservation regions.
For the divers, Raja Ampat is considered as the world’s underwater heaven. You do not have to dive and go into the deep sea to see its beauty because almost all of the sea contents are visible in the shallow sea contents.
3. Wakatobi Marine Park
This is the name of a national park located in Wakatobi regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This national park is a heaven and the center of the world’s coral reefs as well as marine tourism object for those who like underwater adventure. The coral marine biodiversity is varied.
This national park is officially a world underwater research center. This marine park is popular globally espeially after Wallacea Expedition done by England which stated that this area is rich with coral species. The underwater topography is beautiful and colorful, there are more than 112 coral live here.
To enrich your insight about Papua, read here : Facts about Papua Indonesia
4. Derawan Berau Island
This island is located in East Kalimantan, has three diviing spots which is nominated as the third world’s international diving destination. The underwater biodiversity is also rich with 460 types of coral reefs and 832 species of reef fishes.
The coral reef consists of fringing reef, barrier reef, and atoll. You can also spot several protected and distinctive species such as whales, dolphins, green turtles, hawkbills, manta rays, pigmy seahorse, and dugong.
5. Seribu Island National Park
This national park is composed by several small islands and shallow sea water. It has three main component which form the ecological system, that is: coastal forest, mangrove forest, and coral reefs.
On the other hand, the coral type of this national park is fringing coral reef, the coral reef’s authenticity is still protected.
This national park as a large and small variety of coral reefs as a place to secure small fishes. The coral reef beauty is always preserved by replanting coral reefs at several points in this national park.
6. Banda Marine Park
Banda marine park is located between the cluster of Neira island in Central Maluku. This marine park is one of the most beautiful marine park in the world. The coral reefs in Banda marine park itself is remarkable because it is rich with biodiversity consists of 310 reef-building corals, 871 fish species, and a very high population of shark.
Not only that, there are also some ancient fishes and shell fish such as napoleon fish. In 2006 this marine park is categorized as the World Herritage Area for Indonesia’s underwater paradise due to its beauty.
7. Karimun Jawa island
Kaimun Jawa is another island which is famous with coral reefs, consists of 22 islands and has 5 ecosystems types which is coral reef, seaweed and sea grass, mangrove, coastal forest, and lowland tropical rain forests. Those ecosystems are the habitat of various flora such as Dewadaru, Kalisamada, and Setigi.
The fauna that is protected in this area such as green turtle, hawksbill, golden junai, and conch gel. Karimun Jawa sea has several coral reef types, those are fringing reef barrier, barrier ree, and patch reef. The most attractive part in Karimun Jawa is red coral and black coral which is getting rare. Another attraction object is a shipwreck which becomes the habitat for reef fish.
8. Pantar Strait Sea Park
This marine park’s characteristic is the existence of caves as well as the basal contour which has temperature 60-90 degrees . The flow of the water is unique in this strait because it is always changing its direction.
There are about 26 dive spots in Pantar Marine Park, the main diving spot locaton is Shark Close. Shark Close is a diving spot location where the sharks gathering so you can see them from a short distance.
9. Takabonerate Sea Park
This marine park is located in South Sulawesi, considered as the third largest atoll region in the world after Kwajifein in Marshall island and Suvadiva in Maldives.
Furthermore, Atolls here is formed as the result of volcanic eruptions which submerged 2.000 meters beow the sea level.
The atoll is forming a round reef like coral reefs which is the habitat of various marine plants. When you dive into this marine park you can find nudi fish, cuttlefish, barracuda, pari, and bump head fish in the depth of one meter.
- Peucang Island in Ujung Kulon : This island was awarded as one of the World’s natural site heritage by UNESCO. This island is rich with flora and fauna, well-known for its white sands, coral reefs, and a clear blue sea water.
- Togean Sea Park : Togean island sea park has four types of coral reefs, that is: atoll, patch reef, fringing reef, and barrier reef. It consists of 262 species of coral reefs. If you are lucky, you can find the rare hawksbill and green turtles.
- Rubiah Sea Park : This sea park is located in Sabang, its water is relatively calm and the water is very clear (has 25 meters visibility). This marine park is a habitat for various types of tropical fish, coral reefs, giant clams and other marine biota. If you came during the first or the second month of the year, you will see sharks.
- Padar Island : Considered as World’s heritage by UNESCO since 1991 due to its coral reef beauty. It is located in Komodo district, East Nusa Tenggara.
Beside what I explained above, here i give you a stunning view of wonderful and catchy coral reefs in Raja ampat, Indonesia. Check this out.
It is such a blessing that Indonesia has many beautiful coral reefs which will satisfy those who like underwater diving. Those are only some brief explanations, to know more information you may see Indonesian Coral Reef