The Samudera Pasai kingdom becomes the first Islamic kingdom in around Sumatera at around 1267. It is becoming one of the Indonesian strongest monarchies. It was located around Lhokseumawe city, Aceh, the North of Sumatra. As the Islamic kingdom for most population religions in Indonesia, Samudera Pasai was lead by Sultan.
The Samudera Pasai was established by Marah Silu which has commonly known as Sultan Malik As – Saleh. The kingdom was in power between 1267 up to 1521 after it been under attack by Portugal invasion.
Along with the governance of the Samudera Pasai kingdom, there are so many times of changing its sultanates. If you are wondering who is them, let’s take a look deeper into the kingdom.
After that, we will preciously know about the history, sultanate, peak of glory, and the stepped down of the Samudera Pasai kingdom. Now, check them below!
Throughout the Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai book, Sultan Malik As Saleh was replaced the Sultan Malik Al – Nasser before he established the Samudera Pasai kingdom. Sultan Malik Al – Nasser was crowned by Nazimudin Al – Kamil in around the 13th centuries.
Sultan Malik As Saleh led the kingdom until about 1297, after that the kingdom continued by his descendants. There were about 20 sultanates that lead the kingdom from time to time until the kingdom stepped down in 1521.
Based on the Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai and Sulalatus Salatin books, the names Pasai and Samudera have been separated referring to two different regions. But in Chinese records history, these names are not differentiated at all.
On the other hand, based on Marco Polo’s history, he recorded several lists of kingdoms on the east coast of Sumatra Island at that time. There were listed from south to north written as the Ferlec (Perlak), Basma, and Samara (Samudera).
The sultanate of Samudera Pasai kingdom has so many changes throughout the in powering in Sumatera. It claims there are about 20 sultans changes periodically that leads the governance. Here we have some of them who became the most influential sultan to the kingdom.
- Sultan Malik Al Saleh (1267 – 1297)
During Sultan Malik Al Saleh’s reign, the Samudera Pasai Kingdom succeeded in controlling the Malacca Strait. At that time the strait became the center of international trade in export-import. The Sultan command pepper as one of the main export commodities.
Apart from pepper, Samudera Pasai Kingdom also exports silk and camphor. Under Sultan Malik Al Saleh governance, the kingdom became growth the economy sector and make the people under him more prosperous.
- Sultan Muhammad Az Zahir (1297 – 1326)
Sultan Muhammad Az-Zahir is the son of Sultan Malik Al Saleh. He continued to lead the kingdom after his father passed away. During his reign, he succeeds to introduce about using the gold coin or Dirham as the valid money.
Dirham currency was officially used in trade in the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai in 1297. It has a diameter of 10 mm and weighs about 0.6 grams of gold coin. The upper side reads Muhammad Malik Al-Zahir and the lower side reads Al-Sultan Al-fair which means the sultan must give justice to the community.
- Sultan Mahmud Malik Al Zahir (1326 – 1345)
Sultan Mahmud Al Zahir leads the Samudera Pasai to became the leading forward trading industry. There were so many Indian and Chinese that bought the pepper and other spice herbs. That is why there were so many Chinese things there without going to China to buy them all.
The Peak Of Glory
Samudera Pasai reaches the peak of glory between 1383 until 1405 under the Sultan Mahmud Al Zahir’s governance. The glory of it is based on three things that consist of trading, economy, and voyage. All of these bring Indonesia to rise from poverty in Indonesia at that time.
Samudera Pasai trading becomes so great because of the good relationship between other traders. Commonly they came from India, China, Persian, Gujarat, and Arabian. From that on, the economic aspect of the kingdom became growth specifically. The pepper becomes the most commodity to export in Europe and other countries as the kingdom was focused on the type of agriculture in Indonesia.
During the Samudera Pasai kingdom reign, several achievements influence the Sumatranese and all of Indonesian. Here we have the four achievements they got during the kingdom in powering Sumatera.
- Trading Centre
Sumatran Airports in the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai become international trade centers. These spaces the only entrances to the Indonesian archipelago. The good relationship with the Kingdom of Malacca as the center of world trade made the Samudera Pasai Kingdom a developed port.
Located close to the coast of the Ocean, the Samudera Pasai kingdom became a strong maritime empire. The voyage in and out of the Kingdom becomes crowded, so that gives the best support for trading.
Gold coins become valid money for trading, the fast shipping and trade made the kingdom to be rich and prosperous. The kingdom became a world-famous supplier of pepper. They also have dairy cows to produce milk which is used as cheese for trade to Europe. They even produce their most beautiful fabric in Indonesia which commonly known well until now.
The Stepped Down
Before finally stepped down, there was a brotherhood war in the Samudera Pasai kingdom that was written in the Sulalatus Salatin book. In 1511, Portugal came to invade the Melaka.
After conquering the Malacca, they invaded the Samudera Pasai kingdom so that the kingdom stepped down at 1521. Three years later, the Pasai region becomes part of the autonomy of the Aceh Sultanate.
So, there is a glance about a history, sultanate, peak of glory, achievements, and the stepped down of Samudera Pasai kingdom that you should know. The glory and achievements bring Indonesia to be well known around the world.