Indonesia is a country of diverse arts and culture. Every region in Indonesia has a characteristic . As well as original fabrics in Indonesia.
Indonesia traditional fabrics has a high cultural value, especially in terms of aesthetic, symbolic, philosophical meaning. Coloring techniques are still using natural colors like, leaves, and sap of tree. A series of charming fabrics produced using weaving system, which is a simple technique for assembling or merge threads crosswise and lengthwise. The materials used are generally of cotton, wood fiber or silk. Therefore, the inherited traditional fabrics can be find easily .in a variety of world-class fashion events.
Ulos is woven fabric from North Sumatra, Sumatra island. It symbolizes the bond of love. Such as between parents to children and lovers. The basic materials of Ulos generally uses kind of yarn spun from cotton. The uniqueness lay on making process.
Basic colors use Indigo plant then place in clay pot filled with water. Then soak and squeeze the pulp until removed. The result is a black color. So it can be done to go to the next process.
Then, yarn tangles with other yarn according to the desired color, then dyeing process starts continuously. This process takes a very long time even months. Next, yarn plated in muddy water mix with gray water. Boil it until the yarn looks shiny. Open the yarn if the color becomes mature.
Ulos is fabric with red, black, and white color. Sometimes, it combines with colorful patch beads. It uses in all important ceremonies in the traditional society. Ulos has appeared in Asian Model Festival Awards 2016. On the other hand, Ulos is the oldest fabric in Asia. Its estimated over 4000 years.
Lurik fabric is a woven fabric which has unidirectional stripes. The name of Lurik taken from the Java language “Iorek” which means rows or lines.
It has high historical value, especially in the area of Yogyakarta and Central Java. Lurik estimated since the days of the Mataram kingdom.
Lurik made of cotton fiber, wood fiber, silk fiber, and there is also the use of synthetic fibers. It means that Lurik contains various type of fibers.
The manufacture of fabrics using machine. Meanwhile, the manufacturer of yarn process is still traditional by spinning fibers by hand. So it takes al long time to produce one sheet of Lurik.
The patterns of fabric based on flora and fauna. Lurik fabric weaving process is basically quite simple. First, starts from color dyeing process. The second stage is the process of spinning. Yarns have been dyed or dipped them under beneath. Next is set up the pattern. Its styled with a desired pattern of lines. This part is most complicated process. Workers have to concentrate and organize thousands of strands. It purposes to produce a particular patterns on a piece of Lurik width 70 cm.
Lurik is not just a commodity, but a work of art of historical value with simplicity, patience and nobility on it.
Sarung Bugis woven fabric is a type of traditional Indonesian fabrics are classified as very special fabric. It comes from Wajo, South Sulawesi.
Wajo is one of regencies in South Sulawesi is renowned as a potentional of regional silk. Many good silks was produced in this region.
There are about 4982 people weavers with a total production of about 99 640 produce in a year. Therefore, Sarung Bugis becomes trademark of Sulawesi people especially in south.
There are two kinds of patterns are traditional and non-traditional. Wajo provides a variety of motives and high quality silk fabrics. Then, to obtain a high-quality silk fabric, imported and local yarn are combined into one.
Sarung Bugis has a beautiful pattern stripes. There are several kinds of patterns. Such as little boxes pattern called Renni balo. Then, big plaid pattern similar as Tartan fabric from Scotland namely Balo Pit. there is also a pattern of checkered pattern. It contains zig-zag pattern namely Bombang. like an ocean wave.
Sarung Bugis is not only sold in the region of Sulawesi, but also among the textile industry of the island of Java and Sumatra. Meanwhile, International markets including China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan and Korea. They exports Sarung Bugis directly from south Sulawesi.
Tapis fabric is a traditional product from Lampung, Sumatra Island. It contains special patterns of gold or silver. The basic materials of this fabric is cotton yarn is woven traditionally.
Then, the decorations made with two technique, traditional and modern. Tapis is usually used by the women as cover the lower body, from waist to ankles.The patterns are applied in fabric has generally the theme of nature, especially flora and fauna. It written for most type of Tapis patterns fabric. Tapis is symbolize of pledge for most Lampung people.
Meanwhile, there are differences patterns in every region. Such as Tapis Pepadun, Tapis Peminggir, Tapis Liwa, and Tapis Abung. Then, Tapis Peminggir has dominant flora pattern while Tapis Pepandun tend to be simple and rigid.
The process of making Tapis fabric is complex and must be done manually, so that the process can take weeks. So, it has a relatively expensive price. The range of price depending on the complexity of patterns and the proportion of gold . Tapis is already known internationally. United States, Japan, the Netherlands are some countries that often makes Tapis as a collection.
Batik is the cultural heritage of the archipelago. It has a value and a mix of high art, loaded with philosophical and symbol meaning. Batik is a craft that has become part of the culture of Indonesia since long ago. Batik is an image written on the cloth using the night as well as cover.
Meanwhile, Batik began to grow since the days of the Majapahit Empire and the spread of Islam in Java in the early 19th century.
Then, Batik technique was introduced from India or Sri Lanka in the 6th century or the 7th. Along with the spread of Indonesian religion in archipelago.
The making process of Batik process has not changed much. First, wash then enter the fabric into peanut oil with ashes of straw so that the fabric becomes limp. Then It contains high absorption of dye. Then, make a pattern by imitate the existing pattern. Next, continue with the process of covering the parts that should not be exposed. Dyeing batik fabric that has a color liquid continuously. Last, post a fabric into the boiling water. Rinse the appointed fabric with clean water and then cooling it until dry.
Batik has also become one of the luxury goods are sold. The Netherlands Batik patterns are sold at a price of about 100 million rupiahs. Then, there are a three-color batik from different region namely Lasem, Solo, and Pekalongan. It reaches 100 million rupiahs.
Moreover, through exhibitions International, batik is characteristic that distinguishes Indonesia to another. The uniqueness lay on Batik made it become national identity. Iwan Tirta, Ghea Panggabean, and Carmanita, is among several local designers who introduce batik to the world. There are also some International figures use Batik.
Songket Lombok fabric made from yarns with standard quality. It because of the composition of processed yarns are neatly.
Therefore, Songket Lombok can not be compare with other Songket types. Moreover, Songket Lombok also be part of the indigenous people of Lombok, the Sasak tribe.
Basically there are two types of weaving developed in Lombok. One is weaving technique in east Lombok and Songket in west and central Lombok.
The process of making Songket takes a long time. At least one month to produce one sheet of fabric with a width of 1.2 meters and a length of 2 meters. The level of complexity and the patterns make the price of Songket ranges between 100 thousand rupiahs to five million rupiahs per strip.
Songket produced not only for clothing but also for a decorative complementary home interior ornaments. There are several patterns such as Rebong, Swastika, Barong, Eagle, Lion, Dragon.
Songket in South Sumatera craft has been started since the kingdom of Srivijaya. The first materials used are bark, then knitted leaves and cotton. Songket Palembang is usually has geometric shape or form of flora and fauna themes application in decorative patterns. Such as floral jasmine, rose, clove, and a cape fragrant flowers symbolize purity, elegance, sustenance, and all the other goodness.
Meanwhile, another patterns found are Nago betarung, Tabur Limar, Bungo Cino, Bungo Pearls, Bungo Japan and Bungo Pacik. It contains values as a reference in everyday life. These values are sanctity, beauty, persistence, thoroughness, patience.
The price of Songket Palembang is relatively high. It influenced by several factors include history and raw materials, silk and gold thread. Songket Palembang with gold ranges from 10 to 30 million rupiahs.
Sasirangan is custom fabric from Banjar, South Kalimantan. At first, Sasirangan believed to healing for the person who has a disease . Then, This fabric is also used in traditional ceremonies of Banjar tribe.
Moreover, in Barito Kuala, South Kalimantan, there is a piece of sasirangan estimated more than 300 years. Then, it kept as the heritage of Kalimantan and become pride in every people in South Kalimantan province.
Sasirangan contains different of colors in fabrics. Then, There are 6 main colors in Sasirangan fabric made of natural dyes in question, namely:
- Yellow, the materials used are turmeric or ginger.
- Red, the materials used are gambier, noni fruit, capsicum red, or crimson (rosewood, pen)
- Green, the materials used are leaves or ginger pudak
- Black, the materials used are kabuau or happen outside
- Purple, the materials used are seeds of Gandaria (Banjar Ramania, pen)
- Brown, happen outside of the author is or rind rambutan.
Then, there are several types of pattern in Sasirangan. Such as:
- Iris Pudak.
- Bahambur Star.
- Kulit Kurikit.
- Kambang Raja.
- Sari Gading.
- Bayam Raja.
- Sinapur Wave.
Gringsing is is one of the arts ancestral village of Tenganan, Bali island. This fabric uses double tied making process, similar as Kimono from Japan. It more complexity than the single tied. Then, in the art of weaving, uses two yarns namely Lusi vertical and horizontal. However, the color of a piece of yarn is different, and should be woven in order to form planned patterns.
The making process of Gringsing was traditionally by hand without machine. So, it takes a long time. First, starting with the production of color on the fabric. Generally, the colors are only 3 to 4 colors. There are yellow, blue, red, and black.
It has their own meaning. Red means fire, white means earth, and black means water. All the elements necessary balance the body health.
On the other hand, the price of this fabric is relatively high. The smallest size alone, approximately 60 cm x 150 cm worth 400 hundred to 500 thousand rupiah.
Besurek is fabric from Bengkulu province, Sumatra island. It has unique characteristic in patterns. Besurek usually uses pattern with Arabic calligraphy and floral Rafflesia Arnoldi or coastal natural patterns. Most of them are familiar with the community of Bengkulu.
Then, the name of Besurek origins derived from the Malay language. Besurek fabrics originated from the 16th century when Islam came to the land of Bengkulu.
The process of making is similar with other Batik. There are several patterns such as calligraphy of Kuau birds, Relung Paku, Moon, and Rafflesia Arnoldi. Kuau bird patterns drawn from the circuit.
Tenun Ulap Doyo
Ulap Doyo is a type of weaving uses Doyo leaf (Curliglia latifolia). These leaves come from similar plants and grows wild in the interior of Borneo, Kalimantan island.
Then, the leaves should be dried and sliced in the direction of fiber leaves up into fine fibers. Wove and roll up the fibers up to a coarse yarn.
Ulap Doyo predicted exist since centuries ago, even suspected it was almost has the same age with the existence of the Kutai Kingdom. So it was influenced by Hinduism existence written on each patterns on stripes.
In general, the fabric patterns are inspired by flora and fauna that exist in the Mahakam River. Meanwhile, the patterns become identity of the wearer. Waniq Ngelukung pattern used by ordinary people, while Jaunt Nguku pattern used by nobles or the king.
The use of patterns and ornaments have an aesthetic, spiritual, and functional values. Such as a dragon patterns symbolizes as a women’s beauty. Then Perahi Limar patterns means cooperation, Tiger means virility, and Toray means to protect business and community.
On the island of Sulawesi, Tenun Buton becomes pledge in their own homes. It has simple patterns like squares or straight lines. Behind its simplicity, the produce of fabric colors is fascinating.
There are differences between men and women wearers. Vertical straight line is the fabric for women, while for men, the boxes pattern like a sarong. The colors of fabric are yellow, black, blue.
Buton also considered capable of being self-identity for Sulawesi people. Thus, Buton is not only as protectors of the body from the sun and wind chill of night, but also as an identity.
The meaning and function of culture Buton attached to the beautiful work of weaving fabric. Then, there are several patterns such as Betano Walona Koncuapa, inspired by the color of fine ash. Next, Kasopa Buton commonly used by women.
Moreover, the price of Buton is quitely cheap. It costs between 150 to 200 thousand rupiahs depend on the types and qualities of yarn.
Tenun Dayak commonly known as Kebat. It commonly used by the Iban Dayak community in West Kalimantan. This fabric is one kind of luxury clothing that is often used in several traditional ceremonies.
Then, the fabric generally made by the weavers use natural patterns. Such as flowers, beautiful leafy plants and rare unique animals.
Meanwhile, the average price of this fabric is various. It ranging from hundreds of thousands to million rupiahs. The quality of fabric as well as the beauty and complexity of patterns determine the price to be expensive.
This type of fabric is one of sarong type with high artistic value. This sarong used by clerics, businessmen, and even Muslims in the countries of the Middle East. Thus, the quality of Goyor proven a distinctive and high standard quality.
Goyor has a different character than other sarong in general. It feels more cool and smooth with exclusive pattern manually created (handmade), not mass produced.
On the other hand, the process of making one sheet of fabric requires at least 13 steps for approximately 15 days. The making process is complicated. It requires precision, persistence, and patience for complete one sheet. First process start from the selection of raw materials are imported from China and India. Then, design patterns, yarn spinning, dyeing, weaving to packaging also shipping.
However, the price of Gayor is relatively more expensive. It around 150 to 250 thousand rupiahs. Thus, the character of this pattern is not always the same, though drawn and woven by the same people, the end of result will definitely look different. Meanwhile, other uniqueness lay on this sarong is able adjust the weather conditions. Then, the ability to absorb perspiration of the wearer. As well as strong color which not easily fade.
Tenun Donggala established since hundred years ago. Donggala made from simple weaving machines with diverse patterns. Such as roses, carnations, Buya Bomba, and Subi flowers.
Then, the price of donggala ranges between 300 to 700 thousand rupiahs. It depending on the level of difficulty in making process.
Meanwhile, One sheet of Donggala can takes a month. Then if the pattern is quite difficult. The middle-age women from 50-60 years and teens from 12-20 years are worker for Tenun Donggala. Then, the color of Tenun Donggala is various. Such as yellow, red, blue, purple, even green.
Tenun Buna developed by each tribe in East Nusa Tenggara. Buna is the art of handicraft. The patterns show the difference characteristic depends on the wearer. Buna is highly valued . Thus the manufacturing process / foundry pattern only by the imagination of the weaver. So, in terms of the economy, it has a fairly expensive price.
On the other hand, in each tribe has different patterns. Animals and people patterns more highlighted in East Sumba. There are pattern horses, deer, shrimp, dragon, lion, scarecrow, tree skull, and others. While in other areas are offer pattern of birds, lizards, crocodiles, floral or leaf. Buna extremely valuable as symbolic,includes the sense of spiritual and mystical decoration that exist in certain decorative.
Indonesia is country which rich in both nature and cultures. Then art is a symbolize of children’s creativity. Therefore, art can not be separated from life of Indonesian people. So, it would be wise and preserve natural and cultural richness that increasingly recognized internationally.