Yoga comes from Sanskrit means “unification”, which means “union with nature” or “union with the Creator”. Yoga is one of the six teachings in Hindu philosophy, which focuses on meditation or what activity in which a person focuses their minds to control the five senses and the body as a whole.
Yoga (meditation) in Hindu Bali is the control of body and mind to achieve the ultimate goal of samadhi as one of the ways for Hindus to get closer to God Almighty, Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. Here is the history of Yoga in Bali.
- The origin of yoga
Ri Markandeya is a friend of Rsi Dadhici, who had taught Yoga to young Dewi Parwati and taught awareness of Cakra and Kundalini, to be able to reach Shiva. This proved that Markandeya’s Rsi was receiving Yoga teachings directly from Lord Shiva. At one point, Rsi Markandeya and Sapta Rsi faced the hermitage of Lord Shiva, because they saw the chaos of creatures and many humans misused Vedic teachings. Finally Lord Shiva gave Jnana Yoga lessons to Rsi Markandeya and Sapta Rsi.
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- The first time yoga was taught
One day Dewi Parwati left Lord Shiva because failing to give a seven-season flower to decorate her hair. After leaving the consciousness of Shiwanya Dewi Parwati has to carry out heavy Yoga, Lord Shiva teaches Asthanga Yoga to Dewi Parwati so that her identity will recover and remember to Lord Shiva. So Asthangga Yoga is the first teaching of Lord Shiva Yoga given to Goddess Parvati.
The Lord of Shiva also blessed Rsi Wasistha thanks the teacher to establish Perapaan in fostering Humans to the Vedic path, Also Lord Shiva blessed Rsi Gautama with the Nyaya Sutra, namely the release of Yoga teachings. In accordance with the subsequent development, many Rsi received this teaching as a line of education or directly from Lord Shiva. So that this Yoga teaching is very popular until now. And the development of Yoga to Bali was spread by Hyang Rsi Markandeya, because Markandeya was the first Rsi to Bali, it was great to ensure that this Teaching was also brought by him and followed by the rsi afterwards.
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- Yoga entered Indonesia
Yoga distribution from India to Indonesia was spread by Maha Rsi Agastya from Kasi, Benares India. Then the history of the development of Yoga Teachings cannot be separated from the history of kingdoms in Indonesia., such as:
- Kutai Kingdom, with King Mulawarman, son of Aswarman grandson of Kudungga in 400 BC
- Tarumanegara Kingdom, in West Java with the King of Punawarman, covers Bogor, Jakarta and Banten / Lebak regions appearing in the years 400-500.
- The Kingdom of Kalingga, Central Java with the King of Women Queen Sima in 650.
- The Kingdom of Sriwijaya, Sumatra with King Hyang Sri Jayasana in 684
- Kingdom of Mataram, Central Java with King Sanjaya in 732
- Kanjuruhan Kingdom, East Java in Malang Dinoyo Village, with Raja Dewasimha, 760.
- Isanawangsa Kingdom, East Java with Raja Sindok, 929-947. Raja Dharmawangsa 991-1016. Airlangga in 1019-1042
- Kingdom of Kediri, with the Last King of Kertajaya in 1042-1222.
- The kingdom of Singosari, Malang in 1222-1292, with the King starting Tunggul Ametung, Ken Arok, Anusapati, Tohjaya, Ranggaweni, Kertanegara.
- Majapahit Kingdom 1293-1528, with its king Kertarajasa Jayawardana, Jayanegara, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi, Rajasanegara Wikramawardhana.
- The kingdom of Pajajaran, Cibadak Sukabumi in 1521-1579, with the Last King Prabu Ratu Dewata.
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- The spread of Yoga in Bali
In the Balinese chronicle / history, Bali and Seleparang (Lombok) are said to be floating. Seeing that very sad thing, in 89 AD, Hyang Pasupati, a great yogi from East Java, meditated for help from Bedawangnala (Giant Turtles), Naga Ananta Boga (Kundalini power by water), Naga Taksaka (Kundalini’s power from the Air) and Naga Basukih (the power of Kundalini from Fire) to move part of Mount Semeru to the island of Bali which is now Mount Agung and partly on the island of Lombok which is now Mount Rinjani .
In 109 AD, Hyang Pasupati ordered his three children to go to Bali, to maintain the balance and harmony of the island of Bali, namely: Betara Hyang Genijaya, who lives on Mount Lempuyang, now Pura Lempuyang; Betara Hyang Putranjaya, living in Mount Agung now Besakih; and Betari Hyang Dewi Danu lives on Hulun Lake Batur, now Pura Ulundanu Batur.
With the arrival of the three of them the situation of Bali began to gradually improve. Then followed by the arrival of the Hyang from Java, among others; Hyang Temuwuh lives in Batukaru Mountain, which is now Batukaru Temple; Betara Manik Gumawang lives on Mount Bratan Bedugul; Betara Manik Galang in Pejeng; and Betara Hyang Tugu on Mount Andakasa, now Andakasa Temple and narrated also Rsi Markandya meditating in the Demalung area around Mount Dieng.
From here he headed east and meditated on Mount Raung, East Java accompanied by 400 followers, then he went to Bali to save the island of Bali, he went straight to Mount Agung, but unfortunately all of his followers died of illness. Therefore he returned to Mount Raung, East Java, to recite again.
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After that he got the whisperer back again by inviting his followers of 800 people to Bali to Tohlangkir, now called Besakih. In his meditation he received revelation, had to plant Panca Datu if all his followers were to be saved. Where Panca Datu is likened to an antenna that is planted to access the energy of the universe in order to be balanced, in Bali this culture continues to be carried out.
After performing this ritual, he continued his journey west towards the Ubad region which is now named Ubud. He was captivated by the atmosphere of this area, so that he chose this region as a place to start spreading his teachings. First as a symbol of his origin, in the Taro area north of Ubud he established a temple called Pura Gunung Raung, similar to a mountain in East Java. On the south side, he built a semadhi yoga place, in the Payogan area, called Pura Puncak Payogan, and in the Ubud area he founded Gunung Lebah Temple, the present area of conflict.
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- Yoga started to be popular
Initially Yoga goes naturally; a show that blends with a simple environment. Like a gesture from an ancient Yogis, the yoga tradition then becomes an integral part of life on this beautiful island.
Since the 1990s, yoga has begun to develop in Indonesia, especially in big cities. Currently in three major cities in Indonesia, namely Jakarta, Bandung or Surabaya, it is very easy to find yoga studios or fitness-fitness centers.
Then it was started 2008, Balispirit Festival (BSF) has become a pioneer in conducting yoga festivals in Indonesia on an international scale. Whereas in 2010, in Jakarta, Namaste Festival was held. Even with different packaging, the two annual festivals still draw a common thread: yoga as a lifestyle.
Tourists who practice Yoga in Bali will have a holistic experience in the treatment process. The mind, body and soul will unite and ultimately give effect to peace for someone. Through a Yoga session, tourists will know their potential that is still closed and will turn it into a new hope later.
Those are the history of yoga in Bali. In conclusion, Bali takes a great role in promoting yoga through it tourism potential. It proves that every tourist in Bali is interested to learn yoga.
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