Indonesia is currently the seventh largest tea producer in the world. Despite the decrease in land area, the amount of tea production remains relatively stable. This indicates that the remaining tea plantations are becoming more productive.
Almost half of Indonesia’s tea production is exported abroad. Its main export markets are Russia, Britain and Pakistan.
Indonesia’s exported tea comes primarily from state-owned and private plantations (typically high-quality or premium tea), while the majority of small farmers are more oriented to the domestic market (because the tea produced is of lower quality and hence have a cheaper sale price). Here, we are going to expand the types of tea that grown in Indonesia.
- Jasmine Tea
For tea consumption as the form of beverages, jasmine tea become the most favorite beverages for Indonesians. Usually jasmine tea made with basic ingredients of green tea or white tea.
Typical jasmine tea flavor generated by this herb is a soft sweet taste and is usually regarded as a tea that is not hard and easier to enjoy.
Jasmine tea brings jasmine perfume when brewed, leaves thin fluffy and when brewed into the cup is sweet. The jasmine plant itself introduced Chinese from Persia before the 3rd century. These fragrant flowers were first used in tea around the 5th century. Up to now jasmine tea could be well planted in Indonesia.
- Green tea
Green tea is obtained without the fermentation process (enzymatic oxidation), which is made by deactivating the phenolase enzyme in fresh tea leaf shoot, by heating it. So, the oxidation of catechins (antioxidant substances) can be prevented.
Heating can be done in two ways, by roasting and steaming. Tea roasting will provide a stronger flavor and flavor than hot steam.
Advantages by means of hot steam, is the color of tea will be in bright green.
- Oolong Tea
Oolong tea is processed semi-fermented and made with special raw materials, ie certain varieties such as Camellia Sinensis varieties that provide special scents.
Oolong tea type, it is not so popular compared with the type of green tea or black tea.
Most oolong tea leaves produced tea plantations in China and Taiwan.
Oolong in Chinese means black dragon because the leaves resemble small black dragons that suddenly awaken when brewed, but now oolong tea has been produced in Indonesia, such as Java Oolong, Olong Bengkulu, and Olong Organik Banten.
The process of manufacturing and processing of oolong tea is between green tea and black tea, where oolong tea is produced through heating process which is done immediately after leaf rolling process, in order to stop the fermentation process, therefore tehoolong is called semi fermented tea.
- White tea
White tea is a type of tea that does not experience a fermentation process at all, where the process of drying and evaporation is done very briefly. White tea is taken only from selected tea leaves picked and harvested before it actually blooms.
White tea is famous as the god goddess of tea because it is taken from the best leaf buds of every tree, and is called white tea because when picked the bud leaves are still covered like fine white hair.
The picked tea leaves are young leaf buds, then dried by steam dried method or left to dry by air (water dried).
White tea are tea leaves that have the least processing of all types of tea, while other types of tea generally experience four to five processing steps. With a shorter process, the content of in white tea is the highest, so it has a more potent efficacy than other types of tea.
- Black Tea
Black tea is commonly referred to as red tea, it is because the eastern habits call it red tea because the tea solution produced from this tea will be red, while the western people call it black tea because the tea leaves used for brewing are usually black.
Black tea is the most widely used tea in Indonesia, where Indonesia itself is the 5th largest exporter of black tea in the world.
Black tea is obtained through the fermentation process. In this case fermentation does not use microbes as a source of enzymes, but is done by the enzyme phenolase contained within the tea leaf itself.
- Red Tea
Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) Is a plant of a hibiscus family. It is said that this plant originated in Africa and the Middle East.
These shrubs can reach 3-5 meters in height. If you grow up, this plant will flower the red color. Part of flowers and seeds is good for health benefits.
This plant usually used as the tea. It was different from the tea in general. Rosella tea has a bright red color and a fresh flavor.
Plants that reproduce with these seeds are beneficial for health. Stamina of the body will increase if you drink the rosella, it makes sense because the rosella contains vitamin C and essential minerals are high enough. Vitamin C in rosella is also believed to ward off cancer-causing free radicals.
- Oriental Red tea
Mount Halimun is one of Indonesia’s tea producers, this type of red tea is made from black tea leaves of sinensis type, processed through a full oxidation process that reduces the bitter taste of fresh tea leaves.
The aroma is strong, and the leaves are well brewed with 95 degree Celcius water.
Read more about Heavenly Yogyakarta Traditional Foods, Best Healthy Foods in Yogyakarta, and Appetizing Traditional Foods From Sumatera.
- Yellow Tea
Yellow tea is a special tea processed just like green tea, but with a slower drying phase, where the tea leaves are left and begin to turn yellow. This tea is green-yellowish and smells different from white tea and green tea.
This odor is also sometimes misunderstood as black tea if this tea is preserved with other leaves, but it can be distinguished.
- Pu-erh Tea
Pu-erh tea consists of two types: “raw” and “ripe.” Pu-erh tea that is still “raw” can be directly used to be made tea or stored some time until “cooked”.
During storage, pu-erh tea undergoes a second stage microbiological oxidation.
The “mature” pu-erh tea is made from tea leaves that are artificially oxidized to resemble the “raw” pu-erh tea taste that has long been stored and undergoes a natural aging process.
The “cooked” pu-erh tea is made by controlling the moisture and temperature of the tea leaves similar to the composting process. Pu-erh teas are usually sold in solid form after being pressed into bricks, small dishes or bowls.
Pu-erh tea is pressed for the second stage of the oxidation process to work, because the pu-erh tea that is not pressed will not undergo the ripening process. The longer stored, the aroma of pu-erh tea becomes more delicious.
- Rooibos Tea
The original rooibos tea only grew in South Africa, where for centuries it was used to overcome allergies, asthma, and skin problems. However, now it could be planted in Indonesia. Rooibos has immune enhancing properties due to its high levels of anti-oxidants and phytonutrients.
Rooibos scientific name of aspalathus linearis is a member of the fabaceae family.It is the best alternative to black tea, because it does not contain too much tannin, which is believed to inhibit minerals absorbed by the body.
Those are the types of the tea that grown in Indonesia. Some of them are pretty unique. Once you visit Indonesia, you could use one of these kinds of tea to bring home. Then, you would see their different face when taste it.