History of Textile in Indonesia

Clothing is one of the basic human needs. Once the importance of clothing in human life so that its function continues to grow in harmony with human life itself.

From just protecting the body then shifted along with the influence of culture, function and fashion. See also how to dress in Lombok

The evolution of function and the utilization of clothing for human needs takes place almost in all corners of the earth, including Indonesia.

Moreover, the compound Indonesia contains hundreds of tribes and cultures. So no wonder if the textile industry and textile products (TPT) grows into one of the oldest industrial sectors in Indonesia.

Textile is a flexible material made of woven yarn. Textiles are formed by embroidery, suturing, binding, and pressing.

The term textile in its everyday use is often equated with the term cloth. But there is little difference between these two terms. Textiles can be used to call any material made of yarn weavings. While the fabric is the finished product, which can already be used.

History of Textile since Hindu Kingdoms Era

Surely since when the beginning of TPT industry in Indonesia can not confimed. But the ability of the Indonesian people in weaving and knitting has started since the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. The weave is in the form of crafts. It is also intended only for the benefit of art and culture and used for theirself. Read also How to dress in Yogyakarta

Traditional Indonesian textiles are evolving with local creativity both influences from tribes and other nations. Geographically, Indonesia’s position lies at the crossroads of great culture, between two continents of Asia and Australia, as well as two oceans, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

Arabically influenced textile patterns

The wave of trade contacts passing through the territory of the Indonesian archipelago has had an effect and resulted in a visible cultural blending in the development of textile in Indonesia.

Traditional fabrics in the Indonesian archipelago were originally a barter instrument brought by immigrant traders with indigenous peoples when buying crops and spices in Indonesia. You may read also history of trade in Indonesia

Around the 15th century AD, Arab and Indian Muslim traders made trade contacts by visiting the islands of Java and Sumatra. The direct influence of Islam can be seen in Indonesian textiles. Some batik made in Jambi and Palembang in Sumatra, as well as in the North of Java, are made using verses derived from Arabic Al Qur’an.

Textile Machine in Indonesia

The history of Indonesian textile can be said starting from home industry in 1929 starting from weaving and knitting sub-sector by using Textile Inrichting Bandung (TIB) Gethouw tool.

This tool is known as Non-Engine Weaving Machine (ATBM) created by Daalennoord in 1926. ATBM has traditional textile products such as sarong, long cloth, lurik, stagen (belt), and scarf.

The use of ATBM began to be shifted by Machine Weaving Machine (ATM) which was first used in 1939 in Majalaya-West Java, where in the area got electricity supply in 1935. And since then the Indonesian textile industry began to enter the era of technology by using ATM.

The development of textile industry in Indonesia

In the 1960s, in accordance with the guided economic climate, the Indonesian government established the Organization of Similar Companies (OPS). Such as OPS Weaving Machine, OPS Weaving Hand, OPS Knitting, Batik OPS, and so forth.

The OPS is coordinated by the Textile Companies Association (GPS). The GPS Textile Board is appointed by the Minister of People’s Industry. Read also Facts about Indonesian Kebaya

Development of OPS:

  • In the mid-1965s, OPS and GPS merged into one with the name Textile OPS with some parts by type or sub-sector. Namely spinning, weaving, knitting, and perfection.
  • By the year 1970, various organizations were formed. They are Perteksi, Printer’s Club (later become Textile Club), government-owned company (Industri Sandang, Pinda Sandang Jabar, Pinda Sandang Jateng, Pinda Sandang Jatim), and Cooperative (GKBI, Inkopteksi).
  • On June 17, 1974, the organizations held a Congress which resulted in the establishment of the Indonesian Textile Association (API). They are also members of the API.

Beginning in the 1970s, the Indonesian textile industry began to grow. This is supported by the inclusion of investment from Japan in the sub-sector of the upstream industry (spinning and man-made fiber making). You may read also traditional practices in Indonesia.

The development phase as follows:

  • From 1970 to 1985, Indonesia’s textile industry grew sluggish and limited and only able to meet domestic market (import substitution) with medium-low market segment.
  • In 1986, the Indonesian textile industry began to grow rapidly. The main factors are:
    (1) conducive business climate, such as effective government regulations focused on non-oil and gas exports
    (2) the industry is able to meet the high quality standards to enter the export market in the upper-fashion market segment.
  • Period 1986 – 1997 Indonesia TPT industry export performance continues to increase. This is proof that TPT Indonesia as a strategic industry. In addition, as a mainstay of foreign exchange earners of non-oil and gas sector. In this period apparel as a prima donna commodity.
  • The period of 1998 – 2002 was the most difficult period. National textile export performance fluctuates. In this period can be said the period cheos, rescue, and survival.
  • Period 2003 – 2006 is outstanding rehabilitation, normalization, and expansion. Stagnant revitalization efforts caused by multi-constraints. These constraints include difficult sources of financing and a non-conducive business climate.
  • Period 2007 mid – onward start of restructuring of Indonesian textile industry machinery.

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