History of Nursing in Indonesia
Nursing is a form of healthcare professional that is an integral part of health services based on the science and ethics of nursing.
Nursing as an integral part of health services, also determine determine the quality of health services.
The total nursing force dominates existing health personnel, where nursing provides a unique contribution to the form of health services as a relatively, continuous, coordinative and advocative unit.
Nursing as a profession emphasizes the form of professional services in accordance with the standard by taking into account the rules of ethics and morals so that the services provided can be accepted by the community well.
The history of nursing development in Indonesia has been influenced by colonial invaders such as Japan, Holland and England. In its development in Indonesia is divided into two periods such as: Read also Medicinal Plants in Indonesia
The period before independence
1. The Dutch Colonial Period
The development of nursing in Indonesia is influenced by socio-economic condition. That is at the time of colonial colonization of Dutch, English, and Japan.
During the Dutch colonial period, the nurse came from an indigenous population called Velpeger with the help of Zieken Oppaser as the guardian of the sick. In 1799, the Binen Hospital was established in Jakarta to maintain Dutch staff and troops.
The efforts undertaken by the Dutch government were not followed by the development of the nursing profession, as the aim was only for the interests of the Dutch army.
2. British Colonial Period (1812 – 1816)
British colonial period of Rafless, they pay attention to the health of the people. Their motto is health is human property. At that time has been held various efforts in maintaining health. Among them are procurement efforts in general, fix the way of care patients with mental disorders and health care to the prisoners.
The British General Manager when the VOC came to power, Raffles was very concerned about the health of the people. Departing from his motto that health is human property, he made various efforts to improve the health status of indigenous people, among others:
- How to care for patients with mental disorders
- Health of the prisoners
After the colonial government returned to Dutch hands, the health of the population was more advanced. In 1819 established the RS. Stadverband in Glodok Jakarta and in 1919 transferred to Salemba namely RS. Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSCM). Year 1816 – 1942 stood hospitals almost simultaneously the RS. PGI Cikini Jakarta, RS. ST Carollus Jakarta, RS. ST. Boromeus in Bandung, Elizabeth Hospital in Semarang. At the same time stood also nursing schools. You may see also Healthy Lifestyles in Indonesia
3. The Japanese colonial period (1942 – 1945)
At this time the development of nursing decline and the world of nursing in Indonesia experienced the dark ages. Nursing tasks carried out by uneducated people, hospital leaders taken over by Japan, eventually there is a shortage of drugs so that an outbreak occurs.
The period after independence
In 1949 many hospitals were established. In order to meet the needs of health personnel, in 1952 established nursing schools. Then in 1962 has been opened nursing education equivalent to a diploma. In 1985 for the first time opened nursing education level with the undergraduate. The school was held at the University of Indonesia under the name of Nursing Science Program.
With the development of Nursing Science, it became a Faculty of Nursing and a few years later. It became a high level of nursing education at the university level in Indonesia such as in Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya and others. Read also Best Healthy Foods in Yogyakarta
Nursing Trends Now and the Future
After the year 2000 Indonesia entered the era of globalization. In 2003 the era of the ASEAN free market where many professionals went out and went into the country. At that time began to occur a transition period of life patterns of traditional society turned into a developed society.
This situation causes various impacts on health aspects. Among them are urbanization, pollution, accident. In addition, increased infections, malnutrition, and lack of healthy residential population. Read also Importance of Rice in Indonesia
In a modern society, there is an increased opportunity to improve higher education, increase in income and increase public awareness of the law and make people more critical. Conditions that affect health services in which the critical community wants a quality service and provided by professional personnel.
This situation implies that health workers, especially nursing, can meet international standard in providing health care / nursing, professional ability, intellectual and technical capability and sensitive to socio-cultural aspect, have wide insight and develop science and technology development.
However, efforts to realize professional nurses in Indonesia are still not encouraging. Many factors that can cause the low role of professional nurses, including:
- Delayed recognition body of knowledge nursing profession. In 1985 nursing undergraduate education first opened in UI, while in western countries in 1869.
- Delayed development of professional nurse education.
- Delays in nursing service system (standard, nursing practice form, license)
That is the development of nursing care in Indonesia. Until now, the health of Indonesia continues to grow.
Starting from the government system that is the health service to community services such as hospitals and health centers. The government has even tried every citizen to get health insurance. With better service, it is hoped that Indonesian nursing will be better. See also Major Health Problem in Indonesia