According to the report, the number of child mortality in Indonesia under the age of five has been reduced from 385,000 in 1990 to 152,000 in 2012. This was definitely good news, however we must not forget that more than 400 children would probably die every day in Indonesia.
Typically, these are the children of the poorest and most marginalized families who had the greater possibility to die. However, there are 10 causes of child mortality in Indonesia. Here are the lists that you need to see.
- Invasive Pneumococcal Disease
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) is caused by streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcal) bacteria, is still the first leading killer in Indonesia after diarrhea. IPD causes a high mortality rate of 15-20 percent. The highest cases of IPD occur in children under 2 years.
IPD is an invasive disease occurs when bacteria are distributed into the blood or colonized in sterile tissue. Inflammation of lung tissue due to bacterial infection could cause respiratory distress. It is fatal because it can cause death because the lungs can’t perform its function to get oxygen for the body.
Diarrhea is a condition in which a child has a liquid bowel movement more than three times a day. This condition can be caused by infections such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, or non-infections such as allergies and food intolerance.
Diarrhea can affect anyone, men and women, adults and children. Currently, about 30 percent of children have gastrointestinal tracts that are susceptible and sensitive, easily diarrhea, constipate, or produce excessive gas. In Indonesia, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years old, the percentage is 15 to 17 percent.
Usually the main cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 3 years is Rotavirus. Rotavirus infection makes lactase enzymes unable to convert lactose into glucose and galactose. Rotavirus is a type of virus that infects the intestine. This virus is also a common cause of diarrheal diseases in infants and children around the world. Almost all children aged up to 5 years have experienced this virus.
Data from the National Commission for Child Protection recorded about 8 million children under five years old in Indonesia suffering from malnutrition. Malnutrition is one of the serious problems in Indonesia, as evidenced by the high number of malnutrition sufferers. It is important to remember that malnutrition not only causes physical and mental abnormalities in the sufferer but if not treated as early as possible then it will cause death.
WHO declared there are at least 54% cause of infant and under-five mortality is caused by malnutrition. The risk of dying children with malnutrition is 13 times higher than that of normal children.
Tetanus is a dangerous infection because it affects the nervous system and muscle. In newborn child, these germs can enter through the umbilical cord wound that is not cut with a sterile knife. Tetanus disease in newborns is called tetanus neonatorum and is one of the leading causes of death in infants. This tetanus germ can attack both humans and animals. Germs can enter through the wound, both shallow and large wounds.
Sufferers usually get tight with tightly closed jaw (called lockjaw), back arched and difficulty breathing. Tetanus is caused by neurotoxins from anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, Clostridium tetani. They are commonly found in soil, human feces and pets and in agricultural areas, iron rust, needle tip / pin that is not sterile.
- Child abuse
In some research studies, child abuse can include: physical torture, emotional abuse, sexual harassment, and neglect. Elements that encourage acts of violence in children include immaturity / immaturity of the parents, lack of knowledge about how to be a parent, an unrealistic will to the child’s skills and behaviors, negative experiences of childhood from parents, social isolation, domestic problems, as well as problems of drugs and alcohol.
Child abuse could be affected toward the children emotional as well health condition. The most severe effect of child abuse is the death. That is why child abuse also gives contribution toward the causes of children mortality in Indonesia. (Read also: Children Labour in Indonesia)
Bullying acts by children in school or in the playground can range from physical, emotional, cyber bullying, sexting (sending SMS or sexual messages) or spreading indecent photographs. The victims of bullying have a desire to commit suicide 2-9 times greater than other children, even 7 percent of whom had attempted suicide.
According to research conducted by Plan International with the International Center for Research on Women there are at least 84% of young people in Indonesia aged 12-17 years experienced violence in schools. This figure is much higher than the average rate in Asia, which is 70%.
There are various impacts caused by bullying. The impact experienced by victims of bullying is not only physical impact but also psychological impact. Even in extreme cases such as incidents, these physical effects can result in death.
- Birth Defect
Based on WHO SEARO data in 2010, it is estimated that the prevalence of congenital abnormalities in Indonesia is 59.3 per 1000 live births. So, there are about 295,000 cases of congenital abnormalities per year in Indonesia, if 5 million babies born every year in Indonesia.
Congenital abnormalities contribute substantially to the cause of neonatal death. Based on data from Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 2012, infant mortality rate in Indonesia is 32 per 1000 live birth and neonatal mortality as much as 19 per 1000 live births.
Infant and child mortality in Indonesia due to measles infection is very high. Measles may be regarded as a disease that needs to be wary of. Measles can be harmful, especially when there is a measles complication.
Complications mainly occur in children with malnutrition, so it can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea, dehydration due to no appetite, high fever, to include inflammation of the brain. Indonesia became the highest country with infant mortality rate due to measles infection among ASEAN countries. For that, the mother needs to know the symptoms of children affected by measles.
Tuberculosis (TB) is also often called “lung spots” is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Generally these bacteria attack the lungs, but can also spread to other organs, such as brain, bone, lymph nodes, digestive tract, urinary tract and others.
TB is an important public health problem in the world. According to WHO, Every second there is one person infected with tuberculosis in the world, and one third of the world’s population has been infected with tuberculosis which is at least 50% of the sufferers are children.
Asia accounts for 33% of TB cases. Indonesia became the third largest contributor to TB after China and India, as many as 0.24% of Indonesia’s population suffer from this disease. TB became the third leading cause of death, and the number one cause of death in the field of infection in Indonesia.
Meningitis can be caused by bacteria. The 9th deadly disease in the modern world is common meningitis. The average number of infections: more than 1 million people each year. Meningitis is one of the most deadly diseases in the world, not only in terms of mortality rate, but also in life after full recovery as well.
Fatal infections include the brain and spinal cord. In fact, with early diagnosis and immediate treatment, 5 to 10 percent of patients who experience it remain unhelpful. In Indonesia, at least 10% of the children have suffered from this disease. 10 to 20 percent of patients who have recovered suffered from hearing loss, brain damage, or learning disabilities. Mortality rate: 174,000 people every year.
Those are the list of Causes of Child Mortality in Indonesia. In conclusion, the cause of mortality is not always a disease. Some of cause sometimes comes from the family itself. That is why it is important for KPAI Indonesia to always make a good control of Indonesian children.