Top 15 Common Diseases in Indonesia – Solutions
Of course all of us know what disease is. It can’t be separated from our life. And beware, some of them maybe just a little or not have a risk to take our life, but some other don’t. We must know about kind of disease around us, and lets start with discussing the diseases that exist, and many suffer from it in Indonesia.
Some of the list are included in the top list of most deadly diseases by WHO, so you must read it carefully. Lets start!
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Indonesia. However, the incidence of stroke continues to increase. One reason, people still often ignore the control of high blood pressure or hypertension is a risk factor that dominates the incidence of stroke. Stroke is a disease of the brain in the form of impairment of local or global neural functions appear sudden, progressive, and fast. Impaired neuronal function in stroke caused by non traumatic brain circulatory disorder. Symptoms that cause facial paralysis and limb, speech not smooth, and impaired vision.
2. Ischemic Heart Disease
Ischemic Heart Disease is a state of reduced blood supply to the heart muscle that causes pain in the center of the chest with varying intensity and can spread to the arm and jaw. Lumen of the heart’s blood vessels usually narrows due to Ateromatous plaque. If treatment with vasodilator drugs is not successful, By-pass surgery needs to be considered.
Cardiac ischemia occurs because the demand for heart oxygen exceeds the ability of the coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis. If the heart’s oxygen demand is not met from maximum screening, and coronary blood flow will increase through vasodilation and increased mean blood flow.
Diabetes is a condition in which blood sugar or glucose levels are high. Diabetes is also one of the non-communicable diseases that are the focus of the world. In Indonesia, diabetes has become a killer disease number three. This is revealed by the Sample Registration Survey 2014. Diabates with the compilation became one of the third leading cause of death in Indonesia.
Meanwhile, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) data show that the number of diabetics in Indonesia is estimated at 10 million with the seventh highest rank in the world. The prevalence of people with diabetes in Indonesia shows an increasing trend, from 5.7% in 2007, to 6.9% in 2013.
4. Lower Respiratory Infections / Pneumonia
Pneumonia is one of the most frequent health cases among children worldwide. Even in Indonesia, the mortality rate of infants due to this disease was not small. Based on UNICEF report as of 2015, Indonesia is even included in 10 countries with the highest mortality rate of children under five due to pneumonia. In the data, mentioned that in 2015, Indonesia has a death rate of 147 thousand children under five.
Basically, pneumonia is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. This bacterium causes 50 percent of infants suffer from pneumonia. In addition to bacteria, 30 percent of pneumonia diseases are also caused by viruses. While the remaining 20 percent are also caused by type B influenza virus.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. This year, the number of tuberculosis patients in Indonesia rose to the third rank in the world, whereas since 2003 the Ministry of Health has tackled the eradication of this disease nationally by forming an integrated team to the level of Puskesmas.
At that time, all components of health services under the auspices of the three directorates general (Bina Kesehatan Masyarakat, Medical Service and Communicable Disease Eradication and Environmental Health) should be involved and improve the coordination of tuberculosis or tuberculosis control in Indonesia by implementing DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse) strategy. The health service component is Puskesmas, hospital (government and private) and Lung Disease Treatment Center (BP4).
Cirrhosis of the liver is the final stage of the process of liver fibrosis, which is a consequence of chronic disease in the presence of normal tissue with fibrous tissue so that the liver cells will lose its function. Cirrhosis is most often caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and fatty liver disease has many other possibilities.
The way to prevent cirrhosis is not to consume large quantities of coffee, but it can be done by reducing alcohol consumption. Other studies have suggested that heavy drinkers should have a more healthy blood sugar test result and coffee influence in reducing levels of liver enzymes in the blood are also more visible.
7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (PSUOK), is obstructive pulmonary disease with sleep disorders. Usually, this condition will get worse with time. Wakeful symptoms include breathing, coughing, and sputum / mucus production. Patients with chronic bronchitis also have COPD.
Smoking tobacco is the main cause of COPD, and also some other factors such as air and genetic pollution that play a small role. In developing countries, one source of air pollution is usually a fire of poorly ventilated cooking and heating. If exposed to the cause of this irritation in the long term, will result in inflammatory reactions in the lungs that cause airway constriction and damage to lung tissue called emphysema.
8. Hypertensive Heart Disease
Hypertensive heart disease is a disease associated with secondary effects on the heart due to prolonged systemic hypertension. Prolonged and uncontrolled hypertension can alter the myocardial structure, blood vessels and cardiac conduction systems. These changes can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, conduction system disorder, myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction which later manifests clinically as angina (chest pain), myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia (especially atrial fibrillation) and congestive heart failure.
At the end of the 20th century, heart disease and blood vessels became the leading cause of death in developing countries. Based on Household Health Survey (SKRT) in 2001, deaths from heart disease and blood vessels in Indonesia amounted to 26.3%. While data of death in hospital in 2005 equal to 16,7%. The main risk factors for heart disease and blood vessels are hypertension, in addition to hyperkolesterollemia and diabetes mellitus.
9. Kidney Diseases
Lifestyle of people who often eat fast food is suspected to be the cause of hypertension that leads to chronic kidney disease. That’s because fast food contains high salt content. Excessive salt level will actually be removed by the kidneys. However, due to the salt working mechanism that absorbs water, it contributes to the occurrence of high blood pressure.
If the population of Indonesia is about 240 million people then the number of patients who are currently suffering chronic stroke kidney as many as 96 thousand people. The amount can be reduced by applying preventive measures. Like reducing salt intake, avoiding high protein intake, controlling sugar consumption as well as applying a healthy lifestyle.
10. Dengue fever
Dengue is a viral disease transmitted from Aedes Spp mosquitoes, the fastest growing mosquito in the world has caused nearly 390 million people to become infected each year. According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, Asia Pacific accounts for 75 percent of the world’s dengue loads between 2004 and 2010, while Indonesia is reported as the 2nd country with the largest dengue cases among 30 endemic countries.
Based on internal data of Disease Prevention and Control (P2P), in 2015, dengue fever patients in 34 provinces in Indonesia as many as 129,179 people, of which 1,240 of them died. Seeing this alarming condition, the Ministry of Health through health offices throughout Indonesia more incentive to do the movement of “1 House 1 Jumantik”. This movement is a program of mosquito nest eradication (PSN) which invites the whole community to play an active role in preventing mosquito breeding, especially Aedes Spp mosquito larvae.
Cataracts are lenses that become cloudy, so the light can not penetrate, varying in degree from slight to total opacity. In the development of cataracts associated with the age of the patient can cause hardening of the lens, causing suffers from myopia, yellow to brown / white gradually and the opacity of the lens can reduce the perception of the blue color.
The number of cataract patients in Indonesia is highest in Southeast Asia or reaches 1.5 percent of the Indonesian population. Cataracts are a major cause of blindness, with the addition of people with cataract blindness of 0.1 percent or about 210,000 people per year.
The population of Indonesia who are experiencing obesity is now growing more and more big. National Health Research Data (Riskesnas) in 2016 shows adult population aged over 18 years who are overweight or obese by 20.7 percent. That figure shows a rapid increase from 2013 when the overweight population reached 15.4 percent. One of the triggers of obesity in Indonesian society today is the pattern of consumption of sweet foods and beverages. Consumption of sweet foods and beverages becomes difficult to avoid because it is widely available in the market and easily accessible to citizens.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver due to toxins, such as chemicals or drugs or infectious agents. Hepatitis lasting less than 6 months is called “acute hepatitis”, hepatitis lasting more than 6 months is called “chronic hepatitis”. Hepatitis usually occurs because of viruses, especially the fifth one of the five hepatitis viruses, namely A, B, C, D or E. Hepatitis can also occur due to other viral infections, such as infectious mononukleosis, yellow fever and cytomegalovirus infection. The main causes of non-viral hepatitis are alcohol and drugs.
Cases or Number of Patients of Typhus in Indonesia in the graph is increasing. Every year about 50,000 people died from the number of typhoid patients between 350-810 people per 100,000 population. Typhoid fever is a contagious infectious disease that occurs in children and adults. This acute systemic disease is caused by bacterial salmonelia typhi infection. These germs enter the human body through contaminated food and drink, and ingested into the stomach then into the intestine so that the bacteria multiply.
Although typhus can attack children over the age of 1 year, most patients are children aged 5 years. But lately, attacks on children under the age of 5 years, increased to 15%. According to a study in the FKUI Children’s Section of a newborn infant, 80% of the causes are typhus.
In Indonesia alone, based on basic health research data Balitbangkes Ministry of Health shows the prevalence of cancer patients in Indonesia as much as 0.14% in 2013. While in developed countries, the rate of this disease has decreased. The increasing prevalence of cancer patients from year to year in Indonesia is generally due to lack of public awareness to do early detection of cancer and lack of awareness to implement a healthy lifestyle. Standard treatment of cancer ie chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery, just considered not enough to cleanse the body of the remaining cancer cells. Because it is now developed methods of strengthening immune cells to fight cancer.
Why is all diseases keep occurred in Indonesia?
The reason why all the diseases keep appearing in our life is based on several factors, such as :
- The low economy making people can’t buy several treatments for their disease, that’s why the disease is turn into the bad one and start spreading.
- Bad environment also making them more sick.
- Inadequate public health services.
- The laziness to seek a better treatment for their disease.
Of course, looking at the alarming state of the disease in Indonesia, the government take the best actions to help the people of Indonesia, such as :
- Improving epidemiological surveillance (need clinical definition).
- Provide counseling on ways of infection and prevention of the diseases to bypass the infection chain.
- By providing good facilities and infrastructure as well as medical equipment that is sterile and new.
- Endeavors to all means that medical personnel, especially in the field of health system can operate well and directive or notification on how to prevent dangerous diseases.
That is the list of the disease in Indonesia. To protect ourselves from them, we must create ad doing a healthy lifestyle. Less consuming junk food, more eating healthy stuff. Salad sounds good, right? you can do healthy diet too, to prevent the disease and also reducing your weight, its a good way to make you beautiful and healthy at the same time. That’s it, have a good day, everyone !