The world of international health has been horrified by the news of a 2-year-old boy from Indonesia, who has been addicted to cigarettes. The issue of cigarettes is indeed still an interesting issue to be discussed in Indonesia.
Both from the point of view of religion, health, to the issue of prices, cigarettes are always able to be a matter of debate. In Indonesia, smoking is sometimes become the hot issues in Indonesia. However, you need to see these facts of cigarette in Indonesia.
- Indonesia is ranked third as the country with the highest death rate due to smoking
A study was conducted by the Center for Bioethical Studies and Health Behavior, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University (UGM) Yogyakarta. The study focused on the study of high smoking deaths in Indonesia.
From the study it resulted in the fact that Indonesia was ranked third in the world for deaths from smoking. This is similar to the results of research from the world health agency (WHO). According to WHO, in Indonesia there are at least 244,000 deaths each year due to smoking habits.
- Indonesia is the freest country for cigarette advertisements in Asia
In 2017, the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) agreed to ban total cigarette advertisements in print, television, radio and film, except Indonesia.
Southeast Asian countries such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, have agreed that the media in their countries display cigarette advertisements. But Indonesia does not share with other neighboring countries. Cigarette advertisements in Indonesia can still be easily found in various places. Both in print, electronic, billboards and posters in public spaces.
- Increasing tobacco excise will not reduce national income
Tobacco excise revenues increased 29-fold from Rp 1.7 trillion to Rp. 49.9 trillion from 1990-2008. This is proof that the increase in tobacco excise rates by the government is effective in increasing state revenues. With this fact, the myth that increasing tobacco excise will reduce state revenues can be disputed. Ironically, this excise contribution to total state revenues decreased to 5.2% in 2008. A two-fold increase in excise tax will increase
- Indonesia is a paradise for children smokers
There was a story of a child who was being heavily addicted to cigarettes at the age of 2 years is like an iceberg of the problem of child smokers in Indonesia. Data from WHO, as many as 30 percent of children (around 20 million children) in Indonesia who are under 10 years old, are active smokers.
This shows a very drastic increase in the growth of child smokers. Where according to Basic Health Research (Riskesdas), in 2013, the number of children smokers reached 16.4 million. In addition, almost 75.7 percent of smokers start smoking before the age of 19 years. The highest age for smoking is the age group 15-19 years.
- Passive smoking in Indonesia is more resistant of lungs cancer than active smoker
From the 2004 Susenas data, 71% of families had one smoker, 84% of smokers aged 15 years and over. Smoking at home makes other family members become passive smokers which are 3 times more risky than the smoker himself. Based on data in 2004, the largest passive smokers in Indonesia were women (66%).
- Smoking is the second cause of chronic poverty in Indonesia
In the past 2010, data from the Ministry of Health showed, where spending did not need the Indonesian people to consume cigarettes reached Rp. 231.27 trillion in a year. he data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) states that every year the Indonesian people issue a household budget for cigarettes of 12.4%. This means that the income of the Indonesian people is mostly spent on cigarettes compared to education and health.
Menurur BPS, expenditure for cigarette consumption is 4.4 times the cost of education; and 3.3 times the health costs. Unfortunately, those who spend a lot of money for cigarette consumption are people who fall into the category of poor.
- Cigarette production continues to increase
Cigarette production which continued to increase 7x from 35 to 235 billion sticks during 1961-2005 indicated fulfillment of supply from Import tobacco. Local tobacco farming is not a major producer of tobacco, this is indicated by the value of net exports (export value minus import value) in the period 2001-2005 which was minus USD 27-48 million, or an average of USD 35 million per year.
- Campaign wars between supportes and rejecters cigarette on social media
Like other pro and contra issues, the problem of cigarettes in Indonesia is also busy campaigning on social media. At least there are two camps that cross each other on this matter. For example, there are two large communities on social media that are vigorously campaigning for cigarettes. The Voice Without Cigarettes Community, are those who disagree with cigarettes.
And the Indonesian Kretek Community is a group that strongly supports smoking activities. Both on Facebook and Instagram, the two groups campaign for each other’s support, both the pros and cons of cigarettes.
- Unbalanced number of cigarettes and smokers in Indonesia
Indonesia is third country in the world in terms of the number of smokers. About 60 million Indonesians smoke. Deaths due to diseases related to cigarettes each year reach 429,948 people or 1,172 people per day (Profile of Indonesian Tobacco, 2007).
In fact, losses due to cigarettes exceed excise income. In 2005 excise was Rp. 32.6 trillion from cigarettes but the cost of treating diseases caused by cigarettes reached Rp. 167 trillion or 5 times the excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette consumption in 2008 reached 240 billion cigarettes per day or 658 million cigarettes per day (interactive tempo, 2009). This means 330 billion “burned” by Indonesian smokers in a day.
- The percentage of smokers in Indonesia continues to increase
Believe it or not, the prevalence of smokers continues to rise from year to year in Indonesia. In 1995 there were 27% of adults and 7.1% of adolescents aged 15-19 years who smoked, compared to 34.4% of the increase in adult smoking in 2004 with adolescents aged 15-19 years who smoked 17.3% (data from Fact Sheet TCSC ISMKMI). 2004 susenas data shows that almost 70% of low-educated men are smokers. This health knowledge of poor educated low-income families seems to be the cause.
- Price comparison and excise of cigarettes in Indonesia.
The price of cigarettes in Indonesia is very low because the tax charged is very low (ie 38% lowest after Cambodia), so that cigarette consumption increases. This can be compared to the selling price of Marlboro cigarettes in 2008 which in Singapore cost USD 8.64, in Malaysia USD 2.56 while in Indonesia only USD 1.01 (data from Fact Sheet TCSC ISMKMI).
Cigarettes are also the second largest expenditure for the people of Indonesia. In 2006 FE UI Institute Demographic data recorded cigarette expenditure of 11.89%, half of the expenditure on grain which reached 22.10%, but higher than electricity, telephone and fuel which amounted to 10.95% and higher of Leases and Contracts which reached 8.82%.
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Like other pro and contra issues, the problem of cigarettes in Indonesia is also busy campaigning on social media. At least there are two camps that cross each other on this matter. For example, there are two large communities on social media that are vigorously campaigning for cigarettes.
The Voice Without Cigarettes Community, are those who disagree with cigarettes. And the Indonesian Kretek Community is a group that strongly supports smoking activities. Both on Facebook and Instagram, the two groups campaign for each other’s support, both the pros and cons of cigarettes.
Those are the facts of cigaretes in Indonesia. Smoking in Indonesia is a trend for some people in Indonesia. However, you have to consider some smoking rules in Indonesia.