Rice is the basic ingredient of rice maker which is the staple food of Indonesian society. Actually, the result of the farm is very sufficient to meet daily needs.
Even agriculture is one of the promising businesses. You know that rice in Indonesia is one of the foods that can’t be separated from everyday life.
Therefore, the cultivation of rice crop is very good. Especially if you have a large rice field, this can be a good passive income in business. Moreover, you could apply these traditional rice growing methods in Indonesia.
- Testing the seeds
Seeds in rice plants should be tested first to determine the quality. Testing is done by soaking about 100 grains of rice seed in water. After two hours check the seed. How to plant rice seeds is by Seed inspection done by identifying changes in seeds. If there are more than 90 seeds or more than 90% of seeds sprout, it means that the seeds are of superior quality and high quality.
Of the seeds of superior quality and high quality is what is worth to be cultivated. Whereas if the seeds do not show the sign as mentioned above, it means that seed is not recommended for cultivation. After determining the seeds that will be seeded, then can be done nursery immediately.
Seedlings are the early step in planting rice. It requires the best preparation, because the seeds in this nursery will determine the growth of rice in the fields. Therefore, the seedlings should really get attention, so hope to get healthy and fertile rice seedlings can be achieved.
Seedlings are done by spreading rice seeds evenly on the bed with saturated water content but not stagnant. In three or four days the seeds have germinated. Young plants that are three weeks old ready to be revoked and moved to the field. Seeds that have been revoked, will be grouped then in bundles and taken to the fields.
- Seeds Selection
Seed selection is to select quality seeds to plant. This is because the quality seed will greatly determine the growth and productivity of the plant.
Seed selection is done by: seeds soaked in 3% salt solution (3 grams of salt for 1 liter of water), drowned seeds used. drowned seeds taken, rinsed with clean water as soon as possible then soaked in water for 24-48 hours, drained and let it for 48 hours.
- Land Preparation
If the rainy season has arrived, then the farmers immediately open the land for the growing season. Currently, land treatment is done to change the state of agricultural land with certain tools to obtain the structure of the soil (land structure) desired by the plant. Rice field treatment consists of several stages such as cleaning, Embellishment, Piracy, Penggaruan, Cleaning.
Land preparation includes:
- Cleaning: Immerse the straw in water-saturated condition to accelerate weathering. Straw embedding aims for healthy land, the process of absorption can be a maximum puupuk.
- Making galengan / bund, which is hoeing the land to be made galengan / embankment and repair damaged bunds.
- Hijacking, namely the processing of soil I done 20-30 days before planting with a depth of 25-30 cm.
- Traditional plowing
In the dry season, paddy fields should be flooded first for several days to open soil pores and soil texture becomes soft. The first process is done by plowing. PiThe traditional way to use the plow / singkal with the help of cattle or buffalo power.
The process of piracy is done by reversing the soil layer so that the remnants of the plant like grass, and straw can go down. After the soil is hijacked, it is left for several days, in order for the fermentation process to decompose the rest of the plants and straw in the soil.
During the process, it should be added some organic materials or other manure. The goal is that nutrient content and microbial growth in the soil may increase. In addition, the use of organic materials and manure can improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and other growth factors not normally provided by chemical (inorganic) fertilizers.
Use organic materials or manure as much as 2-3 tons / ha. Organic or manure materials include compost, straw, cow dung or chicken, green manure and other organic fertilizers. Manure and other organic sources are used during land preparation to improve soil fertility and soil organic matter content.
- Second Plowing using traditional tools
After finishing the first processing proceed with the second treatment. In the second processing is done the process of spraying or mixing process between organic materials with soil. This process is intended to allow organic materials to coalesce with soil layers.
Try to make this water supply sufficient. Do not be too dry and do not get too wet. This mixing process is done until the organic material is completely fused and mud with a tiller layer. The subsequent process of the soil surface is leveled with the help of tools in the form of wooden boards drawn by cows or buffaloes (using traditional ways).
- Traditional Plantation
When the rice seedlings have been 3 weeks old and paddy fields are ready, it can be done a traditional plantation. Rice seedlings are revoked and collected into several bonds to ease in the distribution of seeds in the field.
After the seeds are removed and tied, the seedlings can be placed in the fields that will be planted, let the seeds for 1 day first do not directly planted. It is intended that the seeds can adapt to the condition of the rice field.
Rice cultivation can be done by way of backward or often called tandur (planting backwards) by Java people, how to plant that is using bamboo that has been given the reference spacing. Bamboo is given lines or others.
- Traditional treatment
Rice treatment must be done in order to get fertile and fruitful organic rice, weeding of grass growing in the fields should always be done so as not to disrupt the growth of rice. Next is do the fertilization, to get organic rice certainly does not use chemical fertilizers. To get a fertile rice can be done addition of organic fertilizer, currently has been widely circulated in the stalls of organic fertilizer farming that has been packaged like chemical fertilizers.
Cultivate rice plants according to the dosage which listed in the packaging of fertilizer. The main enemies of rice are I and mice, to reduce the attack of rats needs to be tricked by keeping the clean rice field area from the lush grass and eradicate the rats nesting in the rice field. For aphis plant pests and other pests is rather difficult if not sprayed by using.
- Weeding and irrigation
Treatment is done with three things: weeding, irrigation, and fertilization. Weeding done by keeping the land clean from the pest. Weeding should be done routinely every period of time. Can be done once a week or three weeks. Watering is provided as needed. As in other plants, make sure there is no shortage or excess water.
Rice crops can be harvested after 4 months of planting, the characteristics of rice that is ready for harvest is all the grain is filled and yellow, and the stalk of rice (straw) has started to dry. For harvesting can be done by cutting the rice stem by using a sickle about 20cm from the base of the stem (not to be exposed to fruit pad).
After that, separating the grains of rice with stems can be done in several ways such as beaten. After the rice grain is separated from the straw, before it is milled to separate the rice and husks, the paddy should be dried first to dry.
Those are the methods of rice growing in Indonesia. Through the traditional ways, the rice that you eat might be healthier than if using the modern ways. Moreover, the traditional ways are commonly practiced in Indonesia. That is why rice in Indonesia is very well known and famous in the world.