Rice Production in Indonesia – History – Irrigation
Indonesia. Who doesn’t know about this country? This country is blessed with so many cultures, values, religious beliefs, religion, and so on. Indonesia is known by people not only by the scenery but also from their unique habit, which we talk about here. Why this become unique one and why this habit make Indonesia more special than another country?
Rice is good food because it contains thiamin, iron, phosporus, porassium, folic acid, and so on which we need for our good health. China is the biggest country which produce rice in the world and its followed by India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, also Thailand. Despite strong grow of rice production, efficiency and availability of these sector remains one of major issues. The cost of rice production in Indonesia is higher than other South East Asian countries. As consequence, rice farmers don’t deserve sufficient income despite the fact that price is relatively high.
Rice is politically strategic commodity in Indonesia and the government seeks to ensure that rice production most the needs if domestic consumption is accordingly is interested for its performance in accordingly for its performance and in accordance with several determining factors. Rice is the main crop grown in Thailand and Indonesia also another South East Asian countries. Rice is one plant that requires plenty of water and heat also its well suited to grow in tropical climate like Indonesia or Thailand. IRRI scientist indicated that rice was first introduced in Indonesia around 1,500 BC and has been under continuous cultivation for the past 3,500 years.
Indonesia ranks 3rd in the world in regards to total rice production and also become 7th largest rice importer over the past 5 years which in average is requiring over 1,1 millions tons of import each year. Indonesia government also estimates that’s people rely on rice for roughly 50 and 40 percent of their daily caloric and protein requirements. However, in recent years total rice consumption has been rising faster than production, as the growth rate of national rice areas and yield has flattered.
There is growing demand for rice which increase in population beside the fact rice is still become major staple food in Indonesia. Productivity is related to finding now high fielding rice varieties that potentially increase the yield per ha, stabilizing rice field by better management to prevent or to control pest are and disease incidence, and post harvested. The efficiency of those methods for increasing rice production differ from one region to another region which this depends on the natural also sosio-economic conditions.
Seasons for Rice Production
There are typically three seasons to plant rice, which are growing periods or seasons in Indonesia, a single wet season, and followed by two dry season crop. Approximately 45% total of production is from wet season drop, cultivated from October to December and harvested from March through April. Both rain field and irrigated crops accounting for approximately 15% of total area and 12% of total production. These crops are usually 98 to 99 percent totally irrigated, which rain-field rice only being grown in small isolated areas where moisture permits. Beside that, rain-field rice in dry season is vert risky thing because the crop failure or abandonment common. In addition, delayed planting of this year wet season rice crop will cause ripple effects through the next two growing periods during the dry season owing to its late maturation and harvest.
The strong El-Nino weather which suppressed instead of South East Asia during 2015 and is affected to Indonesia weather. Rain fall in Indonesia’s prime rice growing area on the island of Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan has been erratic and deficient also forcing farmer to delay the planting period until wet seasons which start from October until April. Planting of the rice usually or most suitable in October and end as well in November. The wet season is the most important rice growing period of the year, which is supporting bath and rain-field grain farming.
Irrigation is the for stable high yielding rice farming system throughout the world and Indonesia is no exception. Farmer usually have engineered local system from ancient times, diverting water from stream and rivers to nearby or of lands. Much of this progress was lost by 1940’s through sheer physical. Deterioration or systems of wartime damage caused during World War II. Furthermore, in the 1960’s it was reported that roughly to 60% of the country’s irrigation system were in despair.
During the following 40 years period in Indonesia gradually expended by its irrigation capacity for annual crops, with total irrigated are using approximately 3,25 million hectares or 73 percent also mixed rice production increased 24,2 million tons or 18,4 percent. Despite this remarkable achievement, budget for the maintenance and repair of existing irrigation systems are pre-perennially in short supply, ensure continual desecration in the national infrastructure. As a result, neglected investment in irrigation infrastructure repair and development will impose serious impediment to the future potential for rice production grown in Indonesia.
Indonesia’s total rice area increasing roughly 5,25 million hectares of 76 percent between 1961 and 2010, primarily through gradual expansion of double and triple cropping on Java, Sumatra, also Sulawesi. By 2011, more than 50 percent of total rice area is routinely cultivated during the dry season (2nd and 3rd crops). After which was simply impossible before these major national infrastructures development. Despite all the progress, current observer of Indonesia’s rice sector are becoming concerned by the apparent sowing of the longer-term historical growing rates.
Rice fields usually called as paddy fields and they have low walls around them because they have lot flooded with water and its also terraced down the hillside. Before planting rice, the soil as sloughed in order to stir up the soil ready for planting the seedlings. In some countries in Asian we need buffalo to pull the sloughs through the muddles, flooded paddy field. After we finish the sloughing, the paddies are flooded and the seedlings are planted by hand in neat rows about twelve centimeters apart we arrange the water to fill i from the rain or rivers which we called it as irrigation.
After we finished the plant, several weeks later the flower will appear on the produce grains in husks. In late summer, we stop the watering and the rice is being harvest. To separate the rice grains from the hulks, the rice is winnowed and toss the rice grams on woven trays or basket. The heavy grains will fall back into the the tray and the husk will blow away. the last thing we have to do is the dried the rice for days and stored it for many days.
Best Places for Rice Plantation in Indonesia
Volcanic origins of Indonesia provided vast areas of fertile soils which support both dense: tropical rain-forest area and agriculture. Average annual rainfall in the countries roughly 3,175 millimeter (125 centers) bu can exceed 6,100 millimeters (240 inches) in the mountainous highland. Combination of copious rain fall and fertile soils make many areas of the island surfeited for farming. Totally agricultural land in 2010 was estimated by the Indonesia government (BPS) at toughly 40,7 million hectares of 22% percent of the total areas in the country. Major crops produce n Indonesia are palm oil, sugar cane, cassava, coconut, corn, bananas, rubber, mangoes, oranges, chilies, sweet potatoes, soybeans, and peanuts.
Based on the average yield levels of the rice, there is also three group of regions which namely group I including Java and Bali, the rice yield of provincial level ranges from 5,36 t/ ha. Group II is including Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Nusa Tenggara (4,1-4,6 t/ ha) and group III including Kalimantan, Maluku, and Irian Jaya (< 0.3 t/ha). The major constraint and limitations of rice yields in those area are different so that the strategic to reduce yield gaps among regions or to increase average yield levels in those regions hold be specific and based on the region or the group. Rice production is heavily concentrated on the island of Java and Sumatra which nearly 60% of total production emanating from Java alone.
There are also some different problem in each region, like in Sulawesi also Nusa Tenggara which the climate really dry also lack of water. Shortage and drought in Sumatra. Then, there is also improvement of drainage system and improvement for drainage system which this both are requires increase since rice yields or to shorten rice yield gaps. Rice yields in Kalimantan, Maluku, and Irian Jaya are not significant because the yield levels mostly slow. The important thrust is to increase rice yields, at least to come to close the average yield of group it.
Rice is cultivated both well in lowland and upland elevations in Indonesia, where the upland typically being rain-field and irrigated lowland is both well watered and heavily fertilized – which is accounting for approximately 80 percent of total national rice area and 93% of total production. Low land rice cultivation is commonly concentrated on Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi which this three islands together contributing like 89% of total national rice production. Rice usually associated with small farmers in remote areas who are establishing mixed plantation or rubber trees and food crops.
Succesful Factors for Rice Production
A success or not rice production in Indonesia is depend on lot factors, such as the different scales of magnitude within regions, province, and district up to farmers field level. Those factors are classified into manageable also unmanageable one, which are yield gaps divided into different levels in various area and indicated by the lowest and the highest yield of rice in such areas as compared to their average. Another factors which belongs to unmanageable variables are solar radiation, minimum and maximum air temperatures, soil texture, etc.
There is also another manageable variables which mean we can control it so we get between rice production and its include water flow and distraction, poor damage, soil fertility, chemical toxicities, etc. Beside these both factors, there is also some natural conditions which like farmer’s traditional methods and knowledge, availability of technology and socio-economic also influence of rice yard level. The yield usually range from 2,01 to 6,09 t/ h which is also indicated there is few gap from actual yield levels to farmer’s field.
Furthermore, here i inform you about the experience of farming rice in Indonesian rice fields may you want to know for increasing your knowledge about rice farming in Indonesia.
Thats all we know about rice production in Indonesia. Its make Indonesia more unique than another countries because their activities and still do by some people. And that what make Indonesia more beautiful, right? Yeah dont forget about Indonesia, a rich country with thousands cultures!