Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world. It is also has a very large population (the 4th country with the large population). Nevertheless, the population dispersal Indonesia is still centered on the island of Java and Sumatra or Western Indonesia.
Therefore, Indonesia has passed the transmigration process with the aim of spreading or distributing of the population into other islands. This transmigration system off course gives some possible effects. Here are the effects of transmigration in Indonesia
- Social Jealousy
The transmigrants after their arrivals are given the very large land and also the modal to start the plantation. It can lead to jealousy from indigenous people who are not provided with facilities as like transmigrant figs. The destination area for transmigration is usually the empty land, but there have been a local people that stay there any longer. The arrival of the new residents of transmigration could lead to new social problems. Especially if the local population felt the arrival of transmigration residents would disrupt or act impolite to them.
- The transmigrant don’t feel comfortable
It is not impossible for transmigrants to feel uncomfortable living in a transmigration destination. So they would decide to return home to their home. The discomfort feeling causes transmigrants to work halfheartedly in transmigration destination areas.
As a result, the government will experience financial losses. In the meantime, the instability of transmigrants will be a bad precedent for the transmigration program. It is not impossible that people will be reluctant to migrate after knowing that transmigrants feel not comfortable in transmigration destination areas.
- The dispute between the tribes
The dispute could happen between the two tribes due to some factors. While the transmigrants have the bad way of adaption, automatically the native people of the region would feel annoyed. While they could get more success, the locals feel jealous of transmigrants. There are so many conflicts. It is necessary for the role of local government in managing the socio-cultural diversity in the transmigration destination, so that the negative impact of transmigration is not getting worse.
- Spent much state budget
For general transmigration, the transmigration requires the substantial budgets. The government should prepare the needs of transmigrants such as houses, living expenses, and so on. Although transmigration of self-help and in a group also needs the state budget, their budgets are still relatively small compared to the general budget of transmigration funds.
- Accelerate the deforestation
The destination of transmigration usually has the rare inhabitants. The area is just like a really green forest. Imagine while there are many transmigrants live and stay, the trees will automatically be cut down and become new settlements for transmigrants. Then, the possibility of natural disasters will be increased toward the transmigrants, local people, and of course the government that has spent much money on the transmigration program.
- The bad prosperity for the trans migrants
It would possibly happen when the transmigrants get a destination area where the agricultural potential is low. It would be getting worse when transmigrants come from non-agricultural areas. They don’t have any farming skill at all. Moreover, while the transmigrants don’t work seriously, not only transmigrants, but also the government will also suffer losses.
- Reduce the rate of unemployment
Transmigration could be an effective way to cover up the unemployment in Indonesia, especially for transmigrants. Unemployed transmigrants in their hometown can get the land that would be their source to get the good income. In addition, there are many employments in transmigration destination areas, so there is no reason to be unemployee for transmigrants.
- The better life for imigrants
Due to the empty land being cultivated and the job that available would make transmigrants have a decent income and able to live better than when they live in their hometown. That is way the problem of poverty can be minimized by transmigration. The imigrants would be able to fulfill their daily needs really well.
- The good population distribution
Indonesia is the country with the bad population distribution. The most populated area just located in Java island. Moreover, in other islands such as Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes, and the small islands there have the rare population. Then, one of the purposes of transmigration is to distribute well the population. Equitable distribution of population will make the economy a region or country to be better.
- Unite the Indonesians
Transmigration could be the one way of the unity for many tribes in Indonesia. It could prove that Indonesians could live together comfortably although they come from the different background and tribes. This unity program hopefully could minimize the conflict among the tribes and region.
- The use of empty land
One of the requirements of the transmigration destination is the unused land. This land will be utilized by the transmigrants optimally, whether it is used as agricultural or plantation land. By this way the empty land in the transmigration area can be utilized. It also would maximize the importance of agricultural in Indonesia.
- Increasing the crops
The utilization of empty land in transmigration are could help Indonesian economy. By maximizing the use of the empty land, the result of the crops in Indonesia will increase rapidly. One of agricultural production that will increase is the rice farming sector. As you know, rice is the main food for most of Indonesian society. Thus, the rice supply in Indonesia will be abundant.
- The transmigrant would leave their family at the hometown
Usually, the transmigrant would live separately with their family in the hometown. Consequently, they would live far away with their wife, parents, even children. This way of life would be reluctant of the family conflict. If they couldn’t manage themselves well, it would increase the number of divorce.
Those are the effects of transmigration in Indonesia. Transmigration could give both positive and negative impacts. However, this program would run well by the support of the citizen of Indonesia.