Tugu or monument is usually used as a symbol of an area as a regional characteristic. So that, Tugu Jogja which is one of the main icons of Yogyakarta. Tugu Yogyakarta is located right in the middle of the intersection between Mangkubumi Street, Sudirman Street, A.M Sangaji street, and Dipenogoro street. With various histories behind it, Tugu Jogja also becomes historical icon for Jogja city. No wonder if many people who photograph in this place to immortalize one of their memories in Yogyakarta. Here is the brief history of Tugu Yogyakarta.
- Built by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I
Tugu Jogja is about a year after the Kraton Yogyakarta stood. At the time of its inception, this building expressly describes Manunggaling Kawula Gusti, the spirit of unity of the people and the rulers against colonialism. The spirit of unity or so-called golong gilig is clearly illustrated in the monument building, the pole is shaped cylindrical (cylindrical) and the top is a shaped golong (round), so called the Golong-Gilig Monument. In detail, the building of Tugu Jogja at the beginning was built in the form of a cylindrical pole conical upward. The bottom is a circular fence while the top is round. The height of the monument building at first reached 25 meters.
According to the history, Tugu Yogyakarta was built by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I in 1755. Initially, the monument was a Gilig-type and has a height of 25 meters, where the pillar of the monument is Gilig (cylindrical) and the top is in the shape of Golong (round), so on it was called Tugu Golong-Gilig Monument. At the beginning of the construction of this monument has the meaning of Manunggaling Kawula Gusti which illustrates the spirit of unity between the people and the rulers against the invaders. But on the other hand can also mean as a relationship between man and the Creator.
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- The function of Tugu Yogyakarta
At the beginning of its establishment, this building expressly describes Manunggaling Kawula Gusti, the spirit of the unity of the people and the ruler to oppose colonialism. The spirit of unity or so-called golong gilig is clearly illustrated in the monument building, the pole shaped cylindrical (cylindrical) and the top form of golong (round), until finally called Monument Golong-Gilig.
The existence of this monument is also a benchmark direction when Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I to meditate, overlooking the peak of Mount Merapi. The building of Tugu Jogja was originally built in the shape of a cylindrical pole conical to the top, while the bottom is a circular fence, while the top is round. The height of this monument building golil gilig at first reached 25 meters.
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- The earthquake destructed the Tugu Yogya
The condition of Tugu Yogya was totally changed on June 10, 1867, at which time there was a major earthquake disaster that rocked Yogyakarta, which made the monument building collapsed. The collapse of the monument because of the earthquake is what makes the situation in transition conditions because the meaning of unity really is not reflected in the building of the monument.
In the year 1867 exactly June 10 or 4 Sapar year Ehe 1796 (ehe: the name of one year in the nest in the calendar of Java) there was a devastating earthquake in Jogja region so that the monument Golong-gilig was damaged. The quake also caused damages to the sari garden and many casualties. The disaster was according to Tjandra Sengkala “Obah Trusing Pitung Bumi” which is a note containing the meaning of the year number 1796.
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- The renovation during Dutch Colonialism
Just so you know, the monument was also one of the imaginary axis of the Palace of Yogyakarta. If drawn a straight line from south to north, or vice versa; it will be found this straight line: South Sea (supposedly controlled by Kanjeng Ratu Kidul, wife of Sultan of Mataram Kings), Krapyak, Kraton Yogyakarta, Tugu, and Mount Merapi.
In 1889, the Dutch government renovated the Tugu Jogja with a square shape with each side decorated with a kind of inscription showing who was involved in the renovation. The top of the monument is no longer round, but a pointed cone. The reshuffle of the building was actually a Dutch tactic to erode unity between the people and the king. However, seeing the struggle of the people and the king in Yogyakarta that followed thereafter, it can be seen that the effort was not successful. The height of the building also becomes lower, only as high as 15 meters or 10 meters lower than the original building. Since then, this monument is also known as De Witt Paal or Tugu Pal Putih.
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- The 4 main philosophy of Tugu Yogyakarta
There are actually 4 main philosophies that are written on 4 sides of Tugu Yogyakarta. Here is the meaning of them.
- Inscription on the west side that reads, “Yasan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwana Ingkang Kaping VII.” This means that it was built by Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwana to VII.
- Inscription on the south side there is the logo “HB VII” and reads, “Wiwara Harja Manggala Praja, Kaping 7 Sapar, Alip 1819.” This means that the symbol of Karaton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat during the reign of Hamengkubuwono VII. Then, cabdrasengkala “Wiwara Harja Manggala Praja” (1819 J), it means the welfare gate for the head of state.
- Inscription on the East side reads, “Ingkang Mangayubagya Karsa Dalem Kangjeng Tuwan Resident Y, Mullemester” . It means welcoming the will of Ngarsa Dalem Sultan is Kangjeng Tuwan Resident Y Mullemester.
- The inscription on the north side reads, “Pakaryanipun Sinambadan Patih Dalem Kangjeng Raden Adipati Danureja Ingkang Kaping V. Kaudhagen Dening Tuwan Y.P.F Van Brussel Opzchter Waterstaat.” That is, the work is financed by Patih Dalem Kangjeng Raden Duke Danureja V. The leader of implementation is ruled by Tuwan Y.P.F Van Brussel Opzchter Waterstaat.
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- Tugu Jogja Today
Tugu Yogyakarta with its new face makes the tourists want to take pictures in the monument. But unfortunately, now the monument allows it can’t be held even in hug again because the monument is given park around him. The renovation of the monument in 2012 gave many changes, both in terms of physical and the surrounding. The monument as high as 15 meters is now in yellow painting made of 22 carat gold. At the time has not been renovated, it was painted in black. In addition, in addition to giving small parks around so that visitors can no longer embrace the monument.
Those are the history of Tugu Yogyakarta. If you want to see Tugu Jogja as much as you remember the philosophical meaning, there is a bench facing the monument at the corner of Jl. Prince Mangkubumi. Afternoon will be okay to visit there. It is also recommended to visit at 05:00 to 06:00 in the morning. Since it would be a good time, when the air is still fresh and not many motor vehicles passing by. Every now and then maybe you will be greeted with a smile friendly newspaper delivery, angkringan, and the artists who never deserted.