The History of Batik Yogyakarta
Batik is beautiful patterned cloth that characterizes the richness of Indonesian culture, especially in Java such as Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta batik cloth that is versatile is actually a lot of functions. The development of batik as a fashion trend in various circles, whether young or old, to a variety of professions & economic background, more the emergence of modern batik motifs. One that often gets the spotlight is batik motif Yogyakarta or Jogjakarta. Batik Jogja or Batik Yogya is basically a batik that has a batik style with white base. Here is the long history of Batik Yogyakarta.
- Relatively closed with the Mataram Kingdom
The existence of Yogyakarta batik is closely related to the history of the establishment of the Islamic Mataram kingdom by Panembahan Senopati. After moving the royal center from Demak to Mataram, Panembahan Senopati often meditated along the coastal of Java Island, among others in Parangkusuma to Dlepih Parang Gupito, tracing a thousand mountainous cliffs that looked like “pereng” or cliff march.
As the King of Java who of course mastered the art, then the circumstances of the place inspired him in creating the pattern of batik slopes or machetes, which is a feature of agatar Mataram and different from previous batik patterns. Since the creator was the founding King of the Mataram Kingdom, then by his descendants, the machete’s patterns should only be worn by the King and his descendants in the palace.
Mataram Kingdom of Islam reached its heyday during the reign of Sultan Agung Prabu Hanyokrokusumo where the people live safely and prosperously. At that time the arts and culture also get high attention, one of which is batik, which has become a raw material and worn clothing in various opportunities. Based on some data obtained, the batik center at that time was in Pleret area.
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- The Giyanti Agreemen
After Sultan Agung died and successively replaced by his heir, the circumstances changed and there was chaos. The number of conflicts then led to the Giyanti Treaty held on May 13, 1755, in which the Kingdom of Mataram split into two, they are Surakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate under Sri Sunan Pakubuwono III, the successor of Sri Sunan Pakubuwono II and Sultanate of Yogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate under Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I (Prince Mangkubumi).
The journey of “Batik Yogya” can’t be separated from the agreement of Giyanti 1755. As soon as Mataram is split in two, and Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat stands, Mataram fashion is transported from Surakarta to Ngayogyakarta then Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwono II design new fashion and traditional dress of Kraton Surakarta different from Yogya fashion.
In the village of Giyanti, the talks took place. The results include, among others, the Region or Territory of Mataram divided into two, one part under the authority of Paduhunan II Paduhunan in Surakarta Hadiningrat, partly under the rule of Kanjeng Prince Mangkubumi who after being crowned as king with title Dalg Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwana Senopati ing Ngalaga Ngabdul Rachman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping I, which is then called kratonnyaNgayogyakarta Hadiningrat.
All heirlooms and palace objects are also divided in two. Clothing Mataraman brought to Yogyakarta, because Kangjeng Prince Mangkubumi who intend to preserve it. Therefore Surakarta under the control of Sri Paduka Susuhunan PB III designed a new fashion arrangement and succeeded in making Surakarta Royal Palace as we have seen today.
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- Batik Yogya during 13th century
In the 13th century, the process of making batik is only done by the princesses and relatives of the King. Batik has become a skill that must be owned by the princess and family palace. For the family of Keraton, batik is a means to practice patience, perseverance as well as creativity, taste, and intention. The end result is also worn itself to meet the needs of traditional ceremonial clothing that is always held in the palace. Due to the high level of clothing needs in the Keraton environment, batik cloth work involving the community and businessmen outside the palace Keraton. The servants sometimes take home and do the process of making batik at home.
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- Batik Yogya during 17th untill 19th century
In the 17th century to early 19th century batik survive to be an intermediary exchange in the archipelago. At that time batik which is the result of artwork of the palace became an interesting commodity trade along the northern coast. In royal palace of Yogyakarta, Javan Batik cloth is worn as a fashion. Batik cloth in the palace is a clothing outfit that are used for all purposes, daily clothing, clothing keprabon, fashion to attend the ceremony of tradition, etc. Javanese men’s clothing that consists of headgear, nyamping, campuh, all of them are made of batik cloth. So also with the completeness of the clothing of Javanese princess which is also in the form of batik cloth.
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- The rule of wearing Batik in palace
Characteristic of Yogyakarta style batik, there are two kinds of background or fabric base color. They are white and black. The color of batik can be white (color of mori cloth), dark blue, and black brown. Sered (rim of fabric) is white. Both clothes are black and white. Simple decorative variety closely related to Hindu philosophy such as: Sawat symbolizes the crown or high ruler, Meru symbolizes the mountain or earth (earth), Dragon symbolizes water, Bird symbolizes the wind or the world over, Flame symbolizes fire. Since first there is already a ban fabric. Every Emperor of the Sultan is entitled to make new rules or prohibitions.
Sri Paduka Sultan HB VIII made a new regulation (revision) entitled Pranatan dalem Bab namanipun peangangge keprabon ing Nagari Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. The Batik prohibition motif is Parang rusak (parang rusak barong and parang rusak gendreh).
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- Batik Yogyakarta Today
Batik Yogyakarta including batik hinterland or batik is very different from batik pesisiran character. Characteristic of Yogyakarta style batik has two kinds of background or the basic color of cloth that is white and black.
Along with its development, batik more widely used community outside the Palace of Yogyakarta and appears certain groups such as Pamong class batik, batik Sudagaran, and batik public. Batik class Pamong widely used by the pamong who came from the Palace. There are also among those who obtain the title of nobility for meritorious in the field of culture and government. Not surprisingly, the among certain levels, often seen wearing batik style Keratonan. They are often involved in events and ceremonies in the palace.
Those are the long history of Batik Yogyakarta. Now you can wear it anytime you want. Batik Yogyakarta has well spread in around Indonesia even all the part of the world. You can wear this outfit while you want to attend a formal event in Yogyakarta