Transportation system in Indonesia can be said to have progressed very rapidly. This can be seen with the construction of transportation facilities such as bridges, ports, railways, and airports. In Indonesia, the train system is still under developed. If it is compared to other developed country that has maximized the transportation system, Indonesia is left behind them. However, it grows better from year to year. Here is the explanation about the train system in Indonesia.
PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) has used information technology in running its business. It can be seen from the provision of e-ticketing service that has been running since 2013. The e-ticketing system is an innovation of information technology utilization from PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) which aims to provide the best public service for all railway users.
In addition, PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) also has an E-ticketing Monitoring Center (EMC) built to ensure and ensure the sustainability of the system and the device is centralized. Both systems are supported by various resources and electronic devices and system development processes that are responsive to the need to minimize the queue at counter and monitoring of all e-ticketing devices in a centralized manner.
There are three railway signaling systems in Indonesia, namely: mechanical signals, mechanical signals with electro-mechanical blocks and electrical signals.
- Mechanical Signal
This type of signal is mechanically driven. There are levers that can be reduced to instruct machinists. In Indonesia, this type of signaling system is used on low frequency tracks, but is now being abandoned and replaced by a more modern signaling system.
- Mechanical Signal with Mechanical Electro Block
With the same usage principle as Mechanical Signal, this type of signal uses the lever as well. But the lever or signal arm is lowered by an electro-mechanical device. The order of installation of this type of signal, the first advance (electric) signal, the incoming signal (mechanical), and the last signal out (mechanical).
3. Electric signals
It has two aspects, red (stop) and green (road). An electrical signal is the same as a traffic light that governs the operation of a train. The type of lamp used in Indonesia is LED, in addition to it also installed 2 lights in each aspect.
While the color of the train signal lights are not much different from the color of light traffic light that is on the road, namely:
- The red color indicates insecure indication, if this signal appears the train should stop.
- The yellow color indicates a careful indication, if this warana appears the train should be reduced its speed and prepare to stop.
- Green color is a hint for safe conditions.
The Railway System of KRL Jabodetabek
Electric train (KRL) ex. Japan (formerly used) serving the Kota – Bogor, Kota – Bekasi and Serpong – Tanah Abang – Manggarai routes, almost never have an accident, although at certain hours the number of passengers exceeds the carrying capacity (even sitting on the roof of the car). Why is it relatively safe?
The reason is that the Japanese ex-KRL train is slimmer and lighter than the size of fast train cars and old model KRLs (wide bodies, still operating), and supported by rail bearings made of concrete. Photo rails with two widths of this rail can be found on the outskirts of Perth, which are at stations traversed by subway as well as fast train distance from Perth to Adelaide. The KA rail in Indonesia is the same size as used for the subway there.
If you compare between the width of the rail and the width of the train from the Jabodetabek KRL, the rail width does not seem commensurate with the width of the carriage above. At first glance it appears that the rail width is not more than one-third of the width of the KRL carriage / carriage. The ratio between rail width and width of carriages in Indonesia is 106,7 / 315,0 = 0,339, while ratio for the same thing from rail system in Europe and America is 143,5 / 315,0 = 0,455. In railways in Indonesia, the ratio is only about 1/3 and the railway ratio in Europe approaches 1/2. From the ratio difference it can be concluded that the railway system in Indonesia is technically “unsafe”.
The Bad Side of Indonesian Railways System
However, there are still a number of Indonesia railways that needs improving. These are the facts that are found in the field.
- The imbalance of the railroad
The width of the rail (or wheel axle width) of the railway in Indonesia is only 1o6.7 cm, and has not changed since it was built in the Dutch colonial period. In those days the passenger cars were shorter, slender, and most of the carbers were made of wood. The speed of the train at that time was not more than 80 km /h.
The size of the railway carriages operating in Indonesia today refers to larger European and American standard sizes in both dimensions and sizes. Ironically, locomotives and large-dimensional cars are still using wheels with a pivot width of only 106.7 cm, whereas the wheel axle width in Europe and America is 4 feet 8.5 inches or 143.5 cm; which means 36.8 cm wider than the existing in Indonesia. While the width of the carriage in Indonesia is the same as in Europe and America, which is 315.0 cm.
In addition, the size of the railroad cross section of railway in Indonesia is also smaller than the rail rail in Europe. Although there is a discrepancy between the size of the carriage and the width of the wheel axle, the overloaded Indonesian-operated rail runs at 100 km / h; even on certain paths traveling at speeds above 100 km / h.
2. The accident that occurs
Accidents that often occur among others in the form of plummeting, rolling, and slipping out of the rails. Falling and slipping of the train occurs when the weight of the locomotive and the carriage exceeds the carrying capacity of the rail line so as to make the rail rail stretched (twisted or curved). Overturning of trains is generally caused by centrifugal force when turning / cornering. The greater the speed at the time of turn, the greater the centrifugal force in nature. Speed at the turn and the mismatch between the width of the wheel axle with the width of the carriage / locomotive is suspected to be the main cause of the overthrow of the train by the force.
Rail pads in some railway tracks still exist in the form of wooden bearings and have been decades old. Some of them even have weathered so as to reduce the carrying capacity of the rail or train that pass through it.
Those are the brief explanation about the train system in Indonesia. Indonesians should be proud that next two year, they can use the new facility of train in Indonesia; MRT and LRT. Those new train systems is still be constructed and need developing by the government.