The History of Volcanoes in Bali – Eruption Record
Bali as the part of Indonesia couldn’t be denied that it is also an island with the high risk of volcano eruption. You might feel traumatic with the last eruption of Agung Mountain in Bali in 2017. Although it was not considered as the national disaster, for some people, the eruption was breaking their heart.
There are not much volcanoes in Bali actually, there were just several active volcano you need to be aware since they would possibly erupt suddenly. However, if you read these history of volcanoes in Bali, you will not assume the bad things anymore.
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- The nature of Bali before the volcanoes were formed
In the temple of Supralingga Bhuana, the situation of Bali Dwipa and Seleparang is still silent, as if it was still floating on the wide ocean. Mount Karu in the West, Mount Beratan (Mangu) in the North. So that Bali Dwipa’s situation at that time was still unstable and shaky.
This situation was later known by Hyang Paspati who had a wedding on Mount Semeru. In order for Bali to be stable (Tegteg) Hyang Pasupati then ordered SangHyang Benawang Nala, SangHyang Naga Anantaboga, SangHyang Naga Besukih and SangHyang Naga Tatsaka moved part of the peak of Mount Semeru to Bali. SangHyang Benawang Nala is the base of Mount Semeru which will be moved to Bali.
SangHyang Naga Anantaboga and SangHyang Naga Besukih become the straps. Whereas SangHyang Naga Tatsaka was invited to become the top binder of Mount Semeru who would be moved to Bali, as well as fly from Java Dwipa Wetan to Bali.
Then after arriving in Bali, the top of the Semeru mountain which is carried by the right hand becomes Gunung Udaya Purwata / Tohlangkir / Gunung Agung. The one taken with the left hand becomes Mount Cala Lingga or later called Mount Batur. These two mountains were later known as Dwi Lingga Giri, which became Parahyangan Purusa Peredana.
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- The Chronology of Caldera Formation
Gunung Bumbulan, Gunung Payang, and Gunung Abang become one with Mount Batur Purba whose height reaches 3500 masl. The diameter of the cone that forms one caldera, approximately 29,300 BC, where Mount Abang stands alone with an altitude of approximately 2,152 masl. The second time, about 20,150 BC, where the Mount Payang cone, the Gunung Bumbulan / Writing cone forms the Kintamani undagan.
Eventually Gunung Kecil appeared (the son of Mount Batur Purba) in the middle of Batur Lake with two palms (pucak Kanginan and pucak Kuruh). Therefore Pekraman Batur village has two Jero, namely Jero Gede Kanginan (held by Jero Gede Duhuran Puri Kanginan), and Jero Gede Kungan (held by Jero Gede Alitan Puri Kuruh).
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- It was believed that Mount of Batur was moved from the peak of Mahameru Mountain
Mount Batur area is famous as a mainstay tourist attraction of Bangli Regency. It is said that according to the story in the Susana Bali Lontar, Mount Batur is the peak of Mount Mahameru which was moved by Batara Pasupati to be used as Sthana Betari Danuh (Dewi Danu palace). At certain times, all Hindus from various regions in Bali come to Batur to send Suwinih to repel the pest disaster that befell their fields. By delivering this suminih, the mountain area of Batur becomes a fertile area.
Areas that can be highlighted as tourism objects are craters, caldera and lakes. There is a flow of water in the ground which flown the waters of Lake Batur, which appears to be a spring in several places in Bali and is considered as “Tirta Suci”
Cultural tourism found in the area of Mount Batur is Trunyan. Although the entire population of Trunyan is Hindu like most Balinese people, they claim that Hindu Trunyan is the original Hindu heritage of the Majapahit kingdom. To the north of Trunyan is the Kuban, a village cemetery, but the body is not buried or burned, but is placed under a tree after an elaborate death ceremony. This place of burial is filled with bones, and we may find new bodies.
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- The Record history of Volcanoes Eruption in Bali
The most frequent erupting mountains in Bali are Mount Agung and Mount Batur. Both mountains have a close bond, namely Mount Agung appears in the “lap” of Mount Batur after erupting thousands of years ago. So it can be said that Mount of Agung is a child of Mount of Batur.
Based on the contents of the lontar of Raja Puranan, Ulun Danu Batur Temple in Batur, the Babad Pati Sora section, explained in the year of Candra Sangkala:
- Angeseng Sasi Wak is Saka 110 (188 AD), Mount Batur erupted
- Wang Sasi Wak namely Saka 111 (189 AD), Mount Batur erupted
- Saka 112 (190 AD), Mount Teluk Biyu erupted
- Wedang Sumiranting, Ksiti namely Saka 114 (192 AD), Mount Batur erupted.
- From 1804 – 2000 Mount Batur erupted 30 times. The most devastating eruption was on August 2 – September 21, 1926 at 11:00 p.m. WITA, the lahars hoarding Batur Village and Ulun Danu Batur Temple. With the help of the Dutch East Indies government, prisoners, and Batun Sendi Ida Betara (Bayung Gede, Sekardadi, Bonyoh, Selulung, Sribatu, Buahan, Kedisan, Abang, Trunyan, etc.) the entire village of Batur could save themselves.
Next, here is the history of Agung Volcano Eruption record based on Scientist record.
- Mount Agung first erupted in 1808. At that time, Mount Agung released a large amount of ash and stones out.
- The next eruption of Agung mountain was occurred 13 years later, in 1821. This second eruption was categorized as normal and the range of the eruption was not as wide as 1808.
- The eruption of Mount Agung again occurred 22 years later, it was in 1843. At that time, eruption was accompanied by a number of earthquakes, volcanic ash and rock debris.
- Mount Agung also erupted in 1963, after sleeping for 120 years. At that time, as many as 1,600 people were killed and 86,000 others had to lose their homes. The eruption at that time began on February 19 to 26, 1963. A number of small stones rained down on Besakih Temple, located on the slopes of Mount Agung. Hot clouds and lava flows also accompanied the eruption. The eruption and a number of accompanying events eased in mid-March. Traces of 11 km of lava flow formed due to the event.
- The last, Mount of Agung erupted in 2017. It is not as big as some eruptions that occurred before, because Balinese people could be safe from this disaster.
Those are the history of volcano in Bali you might need to know. Bali would stay beautiful no matter what, no matter the eruption, as the traveller, you will love Bali as your destination. Even some people abroad are interested to stay in Bali any longer. What’s for? Of course it is because of its beautiful nature that they couldn’t find anywhere else.
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