Indonesia is a country with the most malaria sufferers worldwide. Although most malaria sufferers in the world are not Indonesia, but Indonesia has many difficulties to eradicate this contagious disease. Of the many countries, Indonesia is the country that has the most types of malaria mosquitoes in the world.
In fact, there are 25 types of malaria mosquitoes who like to live in Indonesia, this number is the highest in the world. If Africa has so many mosquitoes, Anopheles mosquitoes are only 2. 2, making Africa so heavy, so imagine Indonesia with 25 types of mosquitoes. Malaria is a disease that spreads through the bite of a mosquito that has been infected with a parasite. Malaria infection can occur with just one mosquito bite. If not treated properly, this disease can cause death. Here are 4 types of malaria in Indonesia.
Types of Malaria based on plasmodium parasites
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. Actually there are many types of Plasmodium parasites, but only five types cause malaria in humans. Plasmodium parasites are only spread by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here are 4 famous types of plasmodium parasites that cause Malaria.
- Plasmodium Vivax (P.v.)
Plasmodium vivax is the most common type of malaria that attacks the world community. It is estimated that 60% of malaria infections in India alone are caused by plasmodium vivax. In Indonesia alone, cases of malaria Plasmodium vivax are often found. Although it is generally rare to cause death or severe problems, it is still possible to cause serious illness with malaria type plasmodium vivax. Some common symptoms of malaria type Plasmodium vivax are fatigue, diarrhea, fever, and chills. Patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria also often experience flu symptoms.
- Plasmodium Falciparum (P.f)
Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the deadliest type of malaria infection. The majority of malaria deaths are caused by the plasmodium falciparum parasite. This type of malaria is often found in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. A study in 2002 showed that 2.2 billion people in the world are at risk of developing malaria type plasmodium falciparum, and 25% of them occur in Southeast Asia and and nearly 70% in Africa.
In Indonesia, the malaria case of plasmodium falciparum is quite high. The main effects of this disease are fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, muscle pain, swelling of the spleen, spasms, back pain, joint pain, vomiting, nausea, fever, headache, anemia, and also some neurological (nerve) symptoms. This infection also often attacks the brain and central nervous system. Therefore, sufferers will often experience changes in levels of consciousness, paralysis, and spasms.
- Plasmodium Malariae (P.m)
This type of malaria is not spread in an area as wide as other types of malaria. However, malaria with Plasmodium malariae is commonly found in South and Central America, Southeast Asia and Africa. In India, this type of malariae only affects 1% of all cases of malaria infection. Although it does not causing death, Plasmodium malariae can still cause very disturbing symptoms. Some of the most common symptoms are high fever and chills.
- Plasmodium ovale (P.o)
This is the rarest type of malaria and is often found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the West African region. In some cases, malaria Plasmodium ovale type can recur. Because the parasite can settle in the liver of the patient for several months to 4 years after being infected with a mosquito that carries Plasmodium ovale.
Types of Malaria based on its symptoms
Besides malaria differs on the types of plasmodium, there are also several types of malaria based on its symptoms.
- Tertiana Malaria
Tertiana Malaria is the first type of malaria to be discussed this time and this is a type of malaria which is also called vivax malaria. The main cause of malaria is Plasmodium vivax. It is precisely this type of malaria that is classified as the most common and there have been many cases where people suffer from this type of malaria.
The name tertiana is known based on the fact of the onset of symptoms of fever where the fever is quite unusual, which occurs 48 hours. The term tertiana itself is a term taken from Rome. The meaning of the tertiana is the day of the event on the first day, while 48 hours after that is the third day.
- Quartana malaria
Plasmodium malariae is the main cause known to trigger malaria quartana. This type of malaria is different from tertiana; if the tertiana type has an attack every 48 hours, then the type of malaria quartana actually occurs every 72 hours. This has been since Greek times and in ancient times it was rather difficult to find the difference between quartana and tertiana.
But then, Golgi in 1885 was able to distinguish between ordinary fever and malaria and then find out the difference between fever, tertiana and quartana as well. Even Golgi was also able to provide a description of the parasite named Plasmodium malariae in more detail and more accurately.
- Tropical Malaria
This type of malaria is severe because the symptoms that occur in the sufferer are more serious. This type of disease is known to be the Plasmodium falcifarum and tropical malaria parasites, which have another term, namely malaria tertiana maligna / falciparum malaria.
The bad news, this type of malaria is the most feared because it is the most ferocious that has ever attacked the human body. The tropics and sub-tropics are the place for the spread of this type of malaria and are so frightening because it is the biggest killer for humans living in the tropics.
- Ovale Malaria
This type of malaria is also called the term pernicious malaria where infection occurs due to the attack of Plasmodium ovale parasites. In other terms, this type of malaria is known as a mild malaria condition and is indeed very rare in humans.
As with other types of malaria, this type of malaria spreads in the tropics, but there have been reports that the disease is being found in Europe and the United States. One report stated that the population in the West Coast of Africa was already infected and that place was the origin of this type of malaria. Only then did malaria ovale develop into East Africa and Central Africa, also in Vietnam and the Philippines.
Those are the types of malaria in Indonesia. Thus all types of malaria and information about the causes. If you live in Indonesia, not to be bitten by Anopheles female mosquitoes and prevent infection, then always maintain personal hygiene and living environment. Consult to a doctor if you feel the symptoms of malaria.