Indonesian red cross society known as PMI, is a neutral and independent organization. PMI established with so much influenced by the principles of Universal Red Cross movement.
Indonesian Red Cross Society initially formed based on the encouragement of humanitarian spirit and national consciousness. Meanwhile, the main function of Indonesian Red Cross is assist the government in the field of social humanity.
On the other hand, PMI does not do distinction among others. Their priority is help those who need of urgent assistance. Therefore, Indonesian red cross society basically not in favor of any aspects which not considered as social humanity.
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Principles and Objectives
Indonesian Red Cross activities based on Pancasila (Philosophy of Indonesia). The goal of PMI is help the suffering of human beings in any condition. There are no distinction of religion, tribe, language, color, class, gender, and political aspects.
Meanwhile, PMI already spreads all over territory in Indonesia. There are 33 PMI offices in provinces and around 408 branch offices. Currently, PMI headquarters based in Gatot Subroto, south Jakarta.
Red Cross Principle
Meanwhile, in implementation of PMI’s activities, they always uphold to the seven principles of universal red cross. There are Humanitarian, Volunteerism, Impartiality, Independence, Unity, Universality, and Equality.
The establishment of Indonesian Red Cross society began in 1873. It was period before World War II. The Government of Netherlands established Red Cross organization in Indonesia under Het Nederland-Indische Rode Kruis (NIRK). Then later changed into Nederlands Rode Kruis Afdeling Indie (NERKAI).
On the other hand, the spirit of people to build Indonesian Red Cross under Indonesia name raised in 1932. The establishment plan began by two doctors, namely RCL Senduk and Bahder Djohan. Moreover, the plan was spread widely and get a highly support especially among the educated Indonesia. Therefore, they carried out the plan to conference in 1940. Unfortunately, the plan got rejected.
[toggle title=”Japanese Era”]
Nevertheless, they tried again to established a National Red Cross Agency in Japanese colonized. They failed because its got obstruction of the Japanese Government. Meanwhile, the opportunity came just 17 days after Proclamation of Independence in August 17th, 1945.
Then, in September 3rd, 1945, the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno issued a commands to established an Agency for National Red Cross. On the order of the president, Dr. Buntaran, the minister of health formed a committee of five. The committee composed of: Dr. R.Mochtar as Chairman, Dr. Bahder Djohan as Author, Dr. Djuhana, Dr. Marzuki and Dr. Sitanala.
[toggle title=”Association of National Red Cross”]
Indonesian Red Cross Society finally officially established on September 17th, 1945. The first head chairman was Doctor Mohammad Hatta, the first vice president of Indonesia. PMI began their first activity by helped victims of Revolution Indonesia war and the return of prisoners as well as japanese allies.
PMI continued to conduct humanitarian activities until the Presidential Decree was issued. The Presidential Decree No.25 in January 16th, 1950 reinforced with Presidential Decree No. 246 in November 29, 1963. So, the Indonesian government acknowledges the existence of Indonesian Red Cross.
1.Presidential Decree No.25 in 1950
During 1945 to in the end of 1950, PMI was active in maintaining the Independence, Indonesia States Presidential Decree No. 25 issued on 16 January 1950. That establishes:
“Admitted as legal entity of the Indonesian Red Cross Society, pointed to PMI as the only organization to run Red Cross activities in the Republic of Indonesia.”
2.Presidential Decree No.246 in 1963
Through the Decree, the government Republic of Indonesia passed about main tasks and activities of PMI based on Humanity and Voluntary. They pledge there are no distinction around nation, class, and political ideology.
[toggle title=”International Recognition”]
On June 15th, 1950, PMI recognized by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Therefore, Indonesian Red Cross Society received a member of the Union 68th by the National League of Red Cross in October 16,1950.
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Logo commonly known as emblem is a sketch which has a specific meaning. Then, Logo created to represent one organization or institution and become their trademark. The profit of having logo is easy to remember as a substitute for the actual existence of the organization.
On the other hand, each logo has a philosophy and the basic framework of the organization concept. Every concept consists of vision and mission.
Both are generally displayed in a certain shape and color. Meanwhile, every logo is certainly has a special meaning behind it.
There are at least five dominants color of Indonesian Red Cross. On the other hand, Colors in general need to be highlighter on behalf of logo or emblem of organization and institution. Then, there are several meaning of Indonesian Red Cross colors:
[tr][th]No[/th] [th]Colors[/th] [th]Meaning[/th][/tr]
[tr][td]1[/td] [td]Red[/td] [td]High passion, Strength, and Joy[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]2[/td] [td]White[/td] [td]Purity, Freedom, and Sincerity[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]3[/td] [td]Yellow[/td] [td]Optimism, Cheerful spirit, and Wisdom[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]4[/td] [td]Blue[/td] [td]Hapiness, Confidence, and Clarity of Mind[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]5[/td] [td]Green[/td] [td]Freshness, Youthful, and Open minded[/td][/tr]
There are two parts of Indonesian Red Cross emblems. Such as:
[toggle title=”1.PMI Emblem”]
National Red Cross emblem uses the International Red Cross Movement since 1863. Red Cross consists of white base color as the opposite of Swiss flag color. It used as a tribute to Mr. Henry Dunant, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Meanwhile, for the outer of Red Cross is Jasmine flower shape. The base color is white with red outline around it. They curves five petals. On the other hand, the election of Jasmine flower based on identity of Indonesia, while the curved petals are symbolize as the Constitution of Indonesian Republic.
[toggle title=”2.Youth Red Cross Emblem”]
PMR means Red Cross for youth in Indonesia. PMR emblem consists of three parts. Such as:
Red Cross Emblem
There are Red Cross with Curved petals of white Jasmine flower shape. It means for develop and coach the youth to bring out Indonesian Red Cross.
Shield in general means defense to the battle. It symbolizes for teenagers is protectors of human survival with their natural sense of humanity to help others. There are several colors of shield. Such as:
[tr][td][/td] [td] Fresh and Open minded [/td] [td] Confident, Happiness and Clarity mind [/td] [td]Optimism, Wisdom and Glory[/td][/tr]
The writing of Indonesian Red Cross Youth indicates the name of the existence of Coaching organization in Indonesia.
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Indonesian Red Youth cross members is any citizen who is wiling to become members. According to regulation, the members are categorized to four parts. Then, They are consists of:
- 10-17 years old, high school students, and unmarried.
- Follow the rights and obligations according to Youth Red Cross rule.
- Apply as Youth Red Cross is concerned.
- Apply data for membership card.
- Register in Indonesian Red Cross archive.
- 18 years old or married.
- Join corps voluntary.
- skills to support activities.
- Register to the branch executive of PMI.
- Applying data for membership card.
- Register in Indonesian Red Cross archive.
- Foreign above 18 years or married.
- Has extraordinary skills.
- Register to the Branch Executive PMI.
- Applying data for membership card.
- Their name is written in Indonesian Red Cross archive.
- Contribute to the progress significantly.
- Appoint to the Decree of the Central Board.
- The provisions determine to the central board.
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According to the government regulation, there are several duties which hand over to Indonesian Red Cross. Such as:
- The duties relate to the Convention of Geneva. Along with the Federation International Red Cross Society and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), as the institution collect national union memberships.
- Service duties such as blood transfusioni in the form of procurement.
There are several aid principle of Indonesian Red Cross. Such as:
- Assists to help victims of conflict war and natural disasters.
- Being supporter for Government on behalf of protecting country.
Source of Funds
On the other hand, There are several source of funds to support Indonesian Red Cross activities.
- Funds of the month. It conducted by PMI under approval authorities.
- Subsidy from central, province, district or city governments.
- Other source that not affiliate with PMI.
[toggle title=”Development of Red Cross and International Humanitarian Law”]
The development of Red Cross Movement, the basic principle, emblem along with International Humanitarian Law (HPI) is a main focus for PMI as national associations in Indonesia. Meanwhile, HPI is a branch of international law contains of provisions.
The provisions include as the protection of victim war and the restriction between methods and ways of war. Both of Interational or Non International. However, HPI also has other name like Martial Law (the Law of War) and Armed Dispute Law (the Law of Armed Conflict). On the other hand, the development of Red Cross can be done in in various forms of activities. Such as training, seminars, publications, or other promotional activities.
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[toggle title=”Disasters Management”]
There are three ways of disaster managements according to regulation of Indonesia Constitution. Such as pre disaster, on disaster, and after disaster.
The activities in pre-disaster period includes:
- The efforts which enable for communities can overcome the hazards of natural disasters. It can through the establishment structure and mechanism of emergency response.
- Giving out information about natural disaster. It includes when and how to rescue from it.
- Mitigation means a series of action. It takes to face natural disaster by reducing or minimizing the impact of disasters. The actions include : Construction of dams, Planting Mangroves, and Reforestation.
- Awareness program about risk and impacts of disasters. It encourages capacity of empowerment to alert the society. The main purpose is to prevent and reduce the impact and risk of disaster that occurred at his residence.
The activities when disaster occurs are:
- Evacuate the victims.
- First aid.
- Emergency shelter.
- Establish the common kitchen.
- Provide a clean water and Sanitation
The implementation of rehabilitation and reconstruction programs of post disaster includes:
- Several activities that helps victims disaster return to normal life then integrate to normal functions in society. Such as handle of psychological trauma victims, development of houses and shelters, renovation of public facilities, and field to do refreshing activities.
- Reconstruction means a series of activities to restore the situation similar as before disaster occurred. It includes infrastructure development, access to economic resources, environmental improvement and community empowerment.
[toggle title=”Disaster Emergency Response”]
For Human, is important to know how to response about natural disasters quickly. It useful for us to prevent a life earlier before the disasters happened. There are several ways of disaster emergency response.
Self awareness is main thing that should be considered before engaging in response actions of emergency. It involves the safety of ourselves also others. The most common activity is do coordinate with other teams of emergency response.
2.Disaster Management Coordination
Coordination of disaster management means all communication aspects. Both of internal communications and external aims to support several activities. Coordination can be done in every phase of the emergency response.
Assessments of situation is important to do. Similar as coordination, Assessment is bring out in every emergency response. There are two types of Assessments. First is rapid assessment for quick respond and followed by detailed Assessment for control the situation.
4.Service Delivery Plan
Planning based on the results of Assessments. It also a manifestation of action plan.
Evaluation means monitoring in every activities. Such as foods, cloths, and medical distribution to victims.
[toggle title=”Social Services”]
Aid of Indonesian Red Cross in term of services for people. It focus to efforts in improve society in basic life. There are seven social services programs include:
- Provide quick response for the disaster victims.
- Participate in disease controls such as HIV Aids, Malaria, Influenza.
- Improve Hygiene, Sanitation, and Nutrition.
- Provide social services for vulnerable groups.
- Enhance the capacity of staff and foster networks.
[toggle title=”Public Health Services”]
PMI aid aim for improve health aspects, supports health care activities, the provision of health recovery, training and basic education, increase the ability of communities and maintain health. There are several types of health services.
1.Health services with components of water and sanitation. Then PMI also focus on community activities related public health servicesto improve self-sufficiency of community.
2.The approach of Education Adolescent Peer (PRS) or the Youth Peer Education in public health programs. There are efforts from PRS to empower PMI with independent teenagers. It uses for improve the health and well being in term of manners.
3. The approach of Education Women Peer (PWS) Women Peer Education. PWS aims to develop skills of women in childbearing age (25-35 years) by educate some knowledge.
[toggle title=”Youth Red Cross Training and Volunteers”]
They uses to bring out in order to increase the capacity of PMI resource. Meanwhile, there are various activities contain the value of the movement. PMR concentrated in schools and at the level of the local PMI chapters.
According Government Regulation No. 18/1980, the assignment of PMI to organizes Health Blood Transfusion. Health Blood transfusion includes:
- Taking a blood donor.
- Processing the safety of blood.
- Distribution of blood.
- Mobilization of blood donor.
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PMI Regions in Indonesia
Since 1945, PMI has growing rapidly and there are 33 regional headquarters and 404 provincial branch headquarters at the district / city. There a list of PMI branch offices in every region:
[tr][th]NO[/th] [th]Province[/th] [th]Number of Branches[/th][/tr]
[tr][td]1[/td] [td]Aceh[/td] [td]21[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]2[/td] [td]West Sumatra[/td] [td]16[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]3[/td] [td]Riau[/td] [td]11[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]4[/td] [td]North Sumatra[/td] [td]23[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]5[/td] [td]Jambi[/td] [td]10[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]6[/td] [td]South Sumatra[/td] [td]14[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]7[/td] [td]Bangka Belitung[/td] [td]5[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]8[/td] [td]Bengkulu[/td] [td]9[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]9[/td] [td]Lampung[/td] [td]10[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]10[/td] [td]DKI Jakarta[/td] [td]6[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]11[/td] [td]Banten[/td] [td]6[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]12[/td] [td]West Java[/td] [td]26[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]13[/td] [td]Central Java[/td] [td]35[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]14[/td] [td]East Java[/td] [td]38[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]15[/td] [td]Jogjakarta[/td] [td]5[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]16[/td] [td]Bali[/td] [td]9[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]17[/td] [td]West Nusa Tenggara[/td] [td]9[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]18[/td] [td]East Nusa Tenggara[/td] [td]8[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]19[/td] [td]Maluku[/td] [td]5[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]20[/td] [td]North Maluku[/td] [td]7[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]21[/td] [td]Papua[/td] [td]11[/td][/tr]
Indonesian Red Cross realizes that work well in every medical and humanitarian aspects is important role. Both of the implementation of policy, regulatory, even the proper procedures. Therefore, it will be done by improving of sustainable partnerships with a various sectors in all levels in society.
Then, It provides easier duties for Indonesian Red Cross and Youth Red Cross. Both are in purpose to helps and support all humanitarian activities in every region of Indonesia for prevent natural disasters that occurred immediately without even one notification.