10 Top Common Infections in Indonesia
Infection is a process of invasion and multiplication of various microorganisms into the body (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites), which when under normal circumstances, these microorganisms are not present in the body.
In fact, in some places in our body, as in the mouth or intestines, there are many microorganisms that live naturally and usually do not cause infection. However, in some conditions, some of these microorganisms can also cause disease. These are the list of common infections in Indonesia.
Tuberculosis (TB or TB) which is also often called “lung spots” is a chronic respiratory disorder caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial infection. TB disease is an important public health problem in the world. According to WHO, every second there is one person infected with tuberculosis in the world. A third of the world’s population has been infected with tuberculosis germs.
About 33% of the total cases of TB disease in the world are found in Asian countries. TB became the number one cause of death in Indonesia. Unfortunately, many still do not realize or even do not know about the dangers of TB and how the treatment.
It is a common infection that usually happens in Indonesia. Tetanus is an infection that is classified as serious and caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria. This bacterium can live more than 40 years outside the human body in the form of spores. Spores are commonly found in dust, soil, animal and human feces, rusted iron, razor wire, and unsterile needle tip. If the spore is in an anaerobic (non-oxygenated) dirty wound, it will become an active bacterium, multiply, and release a neurotoxin called tetanospasmin.
Based on the mechanism, diarrhea is divided into two, namely diarrhea due to impaired absorption and diarrhea due to disruption of secretion. According to the duration, diarrhea is distinguished into acute diarrhea lasting less than 14 days, persistent diarrhea lasting more than 14 days, and chronic diarrhea lasting more than 14 days and intermittently
Acute diarrhea is caused by 90% by bacterial and parasitic infections while others may be caused by drugs and toxic substances. Diarrhea is transmitted oral fecal. The determinants of the occurrence of acute diarrhea are strongly influenced by host factors, ie factors related to the body’s defense ability against microorganisms and agent factors, which are related to the ability of microorganisms to attack the host’s defense system.
Flu or influenza is a viral infection that attacks the respiratory system (a system consisting of the nose, throat, and lungs). Common cold symptoms include fever, headache, cough, aches, decreased appetite, and sore throat.
Incubation period of flu virus is including short. You will experience symptoms only within one to three weeks after first infected. The period in which the most contagious flu is on a day when symptoms begin to appear for the next three or seven days.
Many people think the flu is similar to a runny nose because of the similarity of symptoms, but this is not the right thing. The type of virus that causes the flu is different from the common cold. In addition, flu tends to have a shorter incubation period with more severe symptoms that can inhibit the routine of the patient.
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Dysentery is an infection of the intestine that causes diarrhea with blood or mucus. Diarrhea is a watery discharge with a frequency more frequent than usual. In addition to diarrhea, other dysentery symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and fever. Dysentery is a very common disease, especially the type of bacillary dysentery. This disease can occur throughout the year in Indonesia.
The exact number of people with dysentery is unknown because in addition to this disease has not been officially recorded, most patients also take care of themselves at home without consulting a doctor. Poor sanitation and limited water supply, especially in densely populated areas, may increase the risk of spreading the disease. In addition, a strong dysentery risk factor in Indonesia is contamination of food and beverages.
Measles is a viral infection characterized by the appearance of a rash throughout the body and is highly contagious. Measles can be very disturbing and leads to more serious complications. Symptoms of measles begin to appear about one to two weeks after the virus enters the body.
But fortunately, the government has provided measles vaccine to solve it. The measles immunization program in Indonesia began in 1982. According to Ministry of Health data in 2015, Indonesia has coverage of measles immunization category in Southeast Asia, which is 84%. Indonesia is committed to achieving 95% coverage of measles immunization by the end of 2020. This is because measles are among the top 10 most common under-five mortality cases in Indonesia.
Pneumonia is an infectious disease that attacks the lungs, causing the air sacs in the lungs to become inflamed and swollen. This health condition is often referred to as a wet lung, because the lungs may be filled with water or mucous fluid.
This wet lung condition can be experienced by anyone. However pneumonia in children can be very dangerous and cause death. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) says if pneumonia is the cause of 16% of infant mortality in the world in 2015. Meanwhile, in Indonesia itself, reported by CNN, pneumonia in children causes 2-3 infants who die every hour.
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Mumps is a condition where swelling of the thyroid gland occurs. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located just below the Adam’s apple. This gland has an important function, namely to produce thyroid hormones that play a role in various chemical processes that occur in the body. This is caused by certain viral infections.
Under normal circumstances, the performance of the thyroid gland tends to be unnoticed just like the other internal organs. But if there is swelling, the thyroid gland will form a lump on the neck. This lump will move up and down as you swallow.
Ringworm (tinea) is a fungal infection caused by several different fungi and is usually grouped by its location on the body. Despite its name, ringworm infection is not associated with worms. The name arises because of a leather-shaped patch that was created by the infection.
Usually it is caused by Trichophyton or Epidermophyton, a fungus that can grow in moist and warm areas, between the toes. Fungus can cause the formation of very fine scales without other symptoms or scales that are more content with rashes that itch, rough and cause pain in between the toes and at the edge of the foot also can form fluid-filled blisters.
- Urinary Infection
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a condition when organs belonging to the urinary system, namely the kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra, are infected. Urinary tract infections can happen to anyone. However, because a woman’s body has shorter urethral channels, women are more prone to urinary tract infections.
Starting from the kidney, the dirt in the blood filtered and expelled in the form of urine water. Then the urine is passed from the kidney through the ureter to a shelter called the bladder. Once contained, the urine is then removed from the body through a release channel called the urethra.
Those are the most common infection in Indonesia. The infection could by the animal, food or air. Sp while you visit Indonesia, be careful with some dangerouse virus or bacterial infection.