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Flag of Indonesia – 30+ Facts – History and Unrevealed Stories

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Flag is the symbol of Greatness, and the sovereignty of a territory or country. Flag also reflects a symbol or emblem which is necessary to have. On October 28, 1928 for the first time, red and white flag was hoisted as the national flag in the Indonesian Youth Congress in Jakarta. Since then, red and white national flag hoisted throughout the Indonesian archipelago. 

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The national flag of Indonesia was introduced and hoisted in public on August, 1945. After the first president of the Indonesia, Ir.Soekarno, proclaimed the Independence of Indonesia from Japan. Netherlands finally claimed it on August 17, 1950. Its three days after world war II. The official name for the national flag of Indonesia is Sang Merah-Putih (“The Red-and-White”). Popularly known as Sang Saka Merah-Putih (“The Sacred Red-and-White”).

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penjahit bendera merah putih, tokoh pahlawan, heroes indonesia. first female presidentSewing By Fatmawati

Fatmawati was born on 5 February 1923 in Bengkulu, Sumatra island. As the first Indonesian First Lady, She was the third wife of Soekarno, and the mother of Indonesia’s first female president, Megawati Sukarnoputri. Fatmawati died by a heart attack on 14 May 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia caused heart attack. She constructed the first flag flown for Indonesia.

The original Red White flag was sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati, in 1944 with 276 cm x 200 cm. The flag is made from cotton Japan, but there are also said wool yarn from London which was really special to make the flag. The flags of the world also used wool because it is known for long durability.

In 1946 – 1968 periode, the flag is only hoisted during the independence day ceremony every year in front of the presidential palace. Now its being kept at the National Palace (Istana Merdeka).

Name & Colors

Indonesia Flag, Red white flag, Merah Putih

The name of Sang Merah Putih or Sang Saka Merah Putih has own meaning behind it. The flag appeared already around the 13th century, when a royal dynasty Majapahit ruled Indonesia. However, it was suggested that the reference combination for the colors red and white can trace its origin to older common Austronesian mythology of Mother Earth and Father Sky with both symbolize in colors red (earth) and white (sky).

In 1945, while Indonesia was proclaimed their Independence day, The red and white flag was prohibited by Netherlands as Indonesian nationalists used red and white colors. Its claimed as an expression of nationalism against the Netherlands colonial rule.

It has so many several opinions about the meaning of red and white in Indonesia’s flag. In its aesthetic simplicity, the two-colored portrays the country’s history and the fullness of life in its culture and people.

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The flag is composed of two horizontal strips equally dividing the area in half which is red on top and white at the bottom. The red stripe  represents the body while the white stripe represents the soul. Red stripe also symbolizes human blood and the white represents the human spirit. Red is also known as courage for the blood shed during independence war and white is purity of soul which represent spirit of the Indonesian. Its combination make Indonesia’s flag is similar as Monaco and Poland’s flag.

Traditionally, even since long ago, almost all Indonesian has used red and white as their sacred colors, represents the color of sugar,which is red in color of palm-sugar, and white of rice. Both of them (rice & sugar) are the common components of daily Indonesian cuisine or cooking. When one of the tribes later became so powerful in the islands, called the Javanese’s Majapahit Empire, they did not forget this tradition. They used red-white colors as their National flag. Even until now the Indonesians are still using red-white in their National Flag.

History

There is some reasons why Indonesia uses the combination of red and white colors.

In history, the colors and the name of Indonesia’s flag came from Majapahit’s empire. Actually, before the Majapahit, the Kingdom of Kediri was wearing a red and white pennants. Before Indonesia was colonized by Netherlands and Japan for almost three centuries or up above 350 years,  the history of red white flag began in Kingdom Singosari white. After that, many heroes of freedom used a red and white flag as symbol for began a war.

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Kingdom Singosari White

Red Flag history began in the Kingdom Singosari White. In 1292, soldiers continuously  fighting against the power Jayakatwang Kertanegara of Singosari since 1222. And the amber of flag Minangkabau nature also contained red and white. This flag is one of heritage relic Minangkabau Malay kingdoms in the 14th century. Red color means commander, while white is religion.


Kingdom Bone

Red and white flag is also used as the flag of Buginese Bone kingdom in South Sulawesi, the flag is called Woromporang. The flag, is a symbol of power and greatness of the kingdom Bone.


King Sisingamangaraja XII

sisingamangaraja, traditional hero, indonesian,heroThe first history about combination of red white colors is In 1550, During King Singsingamangaraja XII, the one who has a big history about Batak Tribe.

Sisingamangaraja dynasty began in the mid 1500’s, when King Sisingamangaraja was born in 1515. Of the 12 people who continued the dynasty Sisingamangaraja, Singamangaraja XII is the most popular king, and was appointed as a national hero since 9 November 1961.

Combat power happened of a very long time because the religious teachings of Islam. Batak religion knows only one Almighty, Debata Mulajadi Na Bolon or Ompu Mulajadi Nabolon. Its similar as the two major world religions Islam and Christianity.

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Some historical recorded that Sisingamangaraja XII a true Muslim. and he was not an Islamic fanatic, so he does not push people around him change his religion. Although not enough facts Sisingamangaraja a Muslim, but his motion is affected by the story of Islam in Batak island. Therefore, when Netherlands colonists and missionaries began penetrating north Sumatra from the 1850s onwards, he became the focus of Batak resistance to colonial rule.

In addition, the flag of war during Sisingamangaraja XII was red and white flag. When the war in Aceh, fighters – fighters in Aceh have used the flag of war in the form of banners in red and white, on the back of the picture applied sword, moon, sun, and stars and some verses of the Quran ( The holy book for Muslim ). It showed the influence of Islam in the picture saber, sun and moon on it, bearing twin swords with the basic color light red and white. Two twin swords symbolize Piso Gaja which is the heritage of kings Singamangaraja I-XII.  Actually, the flag was already characterizing feature of Islam in government Sisingamangaraja.


Java War of Prince Diponegoro

During the history of kingdom in Java, or the history of colonial, unprecedented large scale war. The extensive war led by Prince Diponegoro covered main area of Jogjakarta Kingdom.

Diponegoro’s war involved factually all of the strata of society at the time. Nearly half of Prince Palace of Jogjakarta. He was also regarded a piety Islamic leader attempting to found an Islamic Kingdom in Java. The common motive of the Prince Diponegoro fight the Netherlands is Netherlands was too much has interfered in political and economic affairs in the Jogjakarta court.

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The beginning of the war caused large losses on the side of the Netherlands, because of their lack of efficient strategy and commitment in fighting Diponegoro’s guerrilla warfare. The forces of Prince Diponegoro were successful in the early stages of the war, taking control of the middle of Java and half of Jogjakarta. In 1825 until 1830, Prince Diponegoro was lead the Java war and used the red white banner against Netherlands.


The Battle of Surabaya

Surabaya war 10 november, heroes dayDuring the battle of Surabaya, many people doesn’t known that the British were involved in Indonesia after World War Two at all, let alone involved in a major struggle. Right after declared independence from the Netherlands headed by the charismatic Soekarno, Britain (as the main Allied force in the region) had the task of taking over temporarily.

The British forces’ main roles were to repatriate prisoners of war and to maintain order until legitimate government could be installed.

These colors were revived by students and then nationalists in the early 20th century as an expression of nationalism against the Netherlands. A group of Indonesian teenagers climbed up the roof of Hotel Yamato or Hotel Majapahit around 1945 and tore up the blue bottom layer of Netherlands flag before British overtaken Surabaya.

Meanwhile, After six months, Netherlands forces replaced the British and fought for another four years to try and reassert their control. However, nationalist resistance and pressure from other nations eventually won the day, and Indonesian success to keep Indonesia’s independence and finally recognized by the world at large in 1949. Therefore, Netherlands not claimed a red white flag because its kind of a sign for pissed off their country until 1950.

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Rescue of the National Flag

Indonesia declared their independence on Friday, August 17, 1945 in 10:00 AM at East Pegangsaan street No. 56. After declaration of independence of Indonesia, for the first time officially, red and white national flag was hoisted by two young people led by Mr. Latif Hendraningrat. The national flag hoisted in a day and night followed up by exploded boom while attacked of rain shot by colonize.

On January 4, 1946, the Netherlands acts of terror carried out increasing the President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia to leave Jakarta to Jogjakarta by train. The original national flag was taken to Jogjakarta and included in the personal luggage of President Soekarno. Then, the capital of Indonesia is moved to Jogjakarta.

In December 19, 1948, the Netherlands led their second aggresion. At the time of the Presidential Palace, the Great House of Yogyakarta was surrounded by the Netherlands. Mr. Husein Mutahar called by Ir.Soekarno which gives assign to rescue the national flag. Rescue the flag is one part of history to enfore the red and white flag as country’s identity. For having the national can be saved, Mr. Husein Mutahar forced to separate the red and white sections.

husein mutahar, hero of indonesia freedom, flag saviorThere is a reason before Mr. Husein Mutahar decided to separate the red and white sections. With so many boom exploded, and surround of Netherlands army, Ir.Soekarno said to Mr. Husein for entrust other to rescue the national flag, and after that hand it back to Ir. Soekarno. Therefore, along with Mrs. Perna Dinata, stitches between the red and white flag which had been hand-sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati successfully separated.

Around the middle of June 1948, in the morning, Mr. Hussein Mutahar received notice from Mr. Soedjono. Its contain the letter from Ir.Soekarno which still being jailed in Bangka, Sumatra Island. the President personally principal content is the order of President Sukarno to Mr. Hussein Mutahar to hand over the flag brought to Mr. Soedjono so that the flag can be taken and submitted to the President. Therefore, the flag which is separated into two stitched back by Mr. Husein Mutahar exactly in the original stitches. However, about 2 cm from the end of the flag there is little sewing errors.

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Hoisting of the Red and White Flag in the Great House of Jogjakarta

Ahead of the second anniversary of Indonesian independence day, President Soekarno led the memorial service with proclamation about Independence of the Republic of Indonesia, dated August 17, 1946, in the courtyard of the Presidential Palace of the Great House of Jogjakarta. The hoisting of the flag was performed by five Indonesian teenagers, Three girls and two boys. Then, the five of teenagers are representing the Pancasila and the birth of Paskibraka.

In December 28, 1949, President Soekarno back to Jakarta to bring back the name of capital city of Indonesia to Jakarta city. The red and white flag was also taken to Jakarta. For first time, Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia, dated August 17, 1950, held at the Merdeka Palace using the the national flag of Indonesia,  Sang Saka Merah Putih, which is welcomed with celebration of happiness by the entire nation of Indonesia.


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The Regulation of Hoisting National Flag

According to Constitution of Indonesia, Government Regulation No. 24/2009, and Government Regulation No.40/1958, “The National flag must be Sang Merah Putih ( The – Red and white ). And in Chapter VII Paragraph III, ” The National flag must be raisen every August 31 for celebrated the Independence Day of Indonesia was in August 17, 1945 in every houses, buildings, even in public transportation must has at least National Flag’s replica.

Meanwhile, apart of Independence Day, Raising the national flag also must be hold in some places, include education institute. Its written in Chapter IX paragraphs I which in :

  • The presidential palace and the palace’s vice president
  • State institutions
  • Government institutions
  • Non – government institutions
  • Local institutions
  • Regional People’s Representative institutions
  • Delegation of Indonesia’s institutions in other country
  • Education institutions
  • Official residence of president and vice president
  • Official residence of government
  • Official residence of non – government
  • Official residence of mayor
  • The outer islands of Indonesia
  • Indonesian National Army Residence
  • Heroes cemetery funeral

An according to Chapter VII, Indonesian government regulation no.24/2009, about flag explained that:

  1. Hoisting flag of the state is carried out at the time between sunrise and sunset
  2. In certain conditions, Hoisting flag can be carried out at night.
  3. The national flag must be hoist at independence day every 17 of August in every houses, office buildings, educational institutes, public transportation, in the entire territory of Republic in Indonesia.
  4. The local government provided the National flag to Indonesian citizens who can not afford.
  5. Besides hoisting in every August 17, national flag flown at the time of the great days of commemoration of national or other events.

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There are also regulation of national flag shape. According to Chapter IV in Government Regulation No. 24/2009, Shape of national flag must be :

  1. National flag consist of red and white colors with rectangular shape. Its contain 2/3 (two-thirds) widths  of the length and the top red and white bottom of the same size.
  2. Red white flag made by fabric color which does not fade.
  3. Red white national flag made with proper shape in every places :
    • 200 cm x 300 cm for hoisting in the presidential palace’s field
    • 120 cm x 180 cm for hoisting in public field
    • 100 cm x 150 cm in indoor places
    • 36 cm x 54 cm for hoisting in president and vice president car
    • 30 cm x 45 cm for hoisting in government car
    • 20 cm x 30 cm for public transportation
    • 100 cm x 150 cm for ship
    • 100 cm x 150 cm for train
    • 30 cm x 45 cm for airplane
  4.  The size of flag pole for hoisting national flag :
    • The size of the flagpole high field or headquarters  specified maximum 17 m, at least 10 m (5.6 times the length of the flag).
    • The size of the flagpole in the room is determined as two meters high mast, with high standard of 45 cm of the top, circle diameter of 30 cm, and the bottom circle diameter of 50 cm.
    • Upper and lower circles connected with the standard 4 foot pieces.
    • At the end of the flag pole was added prism contains five with high as 5 cm, and prism contains five with 10 cm high, forming the spearhead.
    • The flagpole in the room of polished wood light brown color.
  5.  For purposed which other than those in paragraph three, a flag can using different materials than in paragraph two,  different sizes than in paragraph three, and different shapes than in paragraph one.

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There is some attitude while the national flag being hoisted according to chapter XV, Government Regulation No. 24/2009, such as :

  1. When raising or decreasing the national flag, all persons present saluted by standing upright and solemn as he confronts the face of the flag until national flag is finished.
  2. For those who dressed in the uniform of organization, they must be saluted in the manner prescribed by the organization.
  3. For those who salute towards national flag with straighten hands down and attach the palm with the fingers meeting on the thighs. All kinds of headgear should be opened unless the cap, headband, and veil or millinery worn by religion or traditional custom.
  4. Hoisting the national flag can accompanied by the national anthem Indonesia Raya.

The national flag must be hoisting in this special days:

  • May 2: National Education Day.
  • May 20: National Awakening Day.
  • August 17: Indonesia Independence Day.
  • October 1: Day of the Birth of Pancasila ( Ideology  of Indonesia ).
  • October 28: Youth Pledge Day.
  • November 10: Heroes Day.

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Sometimes, Hoisting of national flag also should display at half-mast as a sign of condolence on several days as follow

  • December 26, as a respect of 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra island.
  • Three days after the death of President or former Presidents, Vice President or former Vice Presidents, Members of Cabinet, Speaker of People’s Representative Council, and Head of Government.
  • Other condolence day that has been set by the government.

The placement of national flag along when hoisting along with a flag organizations according to chapter XXI, government Regulation No. 24/2009 is :

  • If there was one flag of organization, the national flag placed at the right.
  • If there are two or more flags of organization in a line, the red white flag placed between and in front of organization flags.
  • If the national flag brought to a pole with organization flag in the march or national event, the national flag must be taken in front of the group.
  • National flag lined hoisted on the rope as a decoration, made the same large size and arranged in the order of red and white and can not be installed Interspersed with another flag or flags organizations.
  • National flag were used as badges placed on the clothes on the left chest.

How to Hoisting National Flag

There are some steps when you want to hoisting national flag of Indonesia.

  • National flag which hoisted on poles were great and has a balanced with the size of national flag.
  • National flag were hoisted on a rope tied to the side in a flutter national flag.
  • National flag is raised or lowered on a pole slowly, solemnly, and do not touch the ground.
  • National flag mounted on a wall, Its mounted longitudinally flat.
  • National flag which hoisted at half mast, raised up until the top of pole, paused, and lowered at exactly half mast.
  • When the half mast national flag will be lowered, raised up to the end of the pole, paused and then lowered.

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The Function of National Flag

According to Chapter XII, government Regulation No. 24/2009, there are some function of national flag, such as:

  1. Paragraph 1a – As a sign of peace, In case of horizontal conflicts in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia happened
  2. Paragraph 1b – As sign of condolence
  3. Paragraph 1c – As cover of the coffin. Its used for president, vice president, former president and vice president, governments, former governments, national heroes, national army of Indonesia with national funeral ceremony.
  4. Paragraph 4 –  If the president or vice president dies, according to paragraph 6, the half mast of national flag conducted over three consecutive days on the entire territory of the Republic of Indonesia also all the representative offices of the Republic of Indonesia abroad. Then when former president and former vice president dies, and goverment of all institutes dies.
  5. Paragraph 5 – Half mast of national flag as sign of condolence.
  6. Paragraph 6 – Half mast of national flag since the date of the arrival of the corpse in Indonesia.
  7. Paragraph 11 – In case of national flag as as sign of condolence in conjunction if its same day as the great days in national, two national Flags was hoisted side by side, the left hoisted at half-mast and the right of full installed.
  8. Paragraph 17 – In case of national flag is used for opening ceremony of unveiling a statue or memorial, thr flag should not be used as the cover, it should be hoisted a pole which a place of honor.

Prohibited Acts Towards National Flag

There are also some which every citizens are prohibited through government Regulation No. 24/2009, Paragraph XXI :

  1. When national flag being held or hoisted, It must not touch the ground, water, or other things.
  2. The national flag should not soiled easily.
  3. The national flag should not used for :
    • Cover of ceiling, billboard, goods, for all the reasons.
    • Printed in the goods which reduce the value of honor
    • In national flag, should not be placed of alphabets, badges, numbers, sentences, words, or other symbols.
  4. Citizens not allowed to damage, tear up, tramp, burn, or other actions with the intention of tarnishing, insulting, or degrading the honor of the national Flag.
  5. Hoisting the flag which is torn, broken, crumpled, faded, or dull.

Treatment of Red and White Flag Damaged / Not In Use:

  1. In the split between red and white stripe.
  2. The flag which damaged must be destroyed or burned in the right way by burning the flag behind closed doors without showing disrespect to the national flag.

Facts of Red White National Flag

The red and white national flag of Indonesia is a symbol of country. The flag is not simply a piece of red and white cloth. Tears and blood spilled until we could hoist it freely as it is today. Here some facts about Sang Saka Merah Putih, Indonesia’s National flag.

  1. The red and white colors in Indonesia flag has inspired other countries, such as Singapore, Sang Saka Malaya and the flag of the People (pre-independence Malaya), and be an inspiration also to the Pan Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO).
  2. Since 1968, the original of red white flag never flown again, because the old age factor. The flag is only kept in National Palace. And the currently in hoist duplicates made of silk fabric.
  3. The flag is proved to have three nicknames tablets. The first flag sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati, often referred to as ‘Sang Saka Merah Putih’. Then, Sang Saka Merah Putih, is the nickname of honor to the flag State of Indonesia.
    And the last is the “Sang Dwiwarna”, is the designation for any flag of the Republic of Indonesia were flying in every flag ceremony.
  4. The original red white flag was sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati with her own hands. She unite colored fabric Red and White measuring 276×200 centimeters only use threads and sewing needle alone.
  5. The first red white flag was sewn in 50 cm .
  6. The origin red cloth flag was got by a seller soup while the white cloth is a linen bed of sheets. This information comes from Luke Kustaryo, a soldier, who described his experience Digest magazine, August 1991.
  7. There is a historical record which said that In October 1944, Mrs. Fatmawati was approached by a Japanese officer named Chairul Basri. Fatmawati who was then pregnant awarded 2 blocks each fabric red and white. Two blocks of red and white cloth that later became the forerunner of heritage flag.
  8. Japan gives flag fabric as a material that seems related to the announcement of the Prime Minister Koiso on 7 September 1944. Japan promised to give independence to Indonesia.
  9. Chairul Basri claimed that he got the fabric from Hitoshi Shimizu, Head of Propaganda Department.
  10. Hitoshi Shimizu said that the cloth was obtained from a Japanese warehouse in the area Pintu Air, Central Jakarta, in front of the former cinema Capitol.
  11. In 1978, Hitoshi Shimizu invited by President Soeharto to receive an award from the Indonesian government because it is credited to improve Indonesia-Japan relations.
  12. The original red white flag was officially hoisted for the first time by three young peoples. There are Sudiro, Former of Mayor in Jakarta, Ilyas Karim, and Mr. Latif Hendradiningrat.
  13. The original red white flag hoisted for the first time at bamboo pole.
  14. The original red white flag only flown for 32 years in independence ceremony at the National Palace.
  15. The original red white flag is saved in National Monument.
  16.  The original of red white flag still be a honorable guest every year at the National Palace. Sang Saka Merah Putih will be taken by the paskibra with the tray, and then given to the President in exchange for the duplicate. Then, the duplicate of red white flag will be hoisted.
  17. The red stripe also symbolizes the human body, while white stripe symbolizes the human soul. Both complement and enhance each to Indonesia.
  18. Kusno wibowo is Indonesian teenager who tore a blue flag of Netherlands flag during Surabaya war and hoisted the red and white flag at the top of the hotel Yamato.
  19. Husein Mutahar is inventor of procedures for flag raising in every ceremony.
  20. Mutahar Hussein later died on June 9, 2004 at the age of 87 years.
  21. The red white flag is the epitome of the nation’s highest.
  22. The idea of making a replica of the red and white flag appeared on the proposal Mr. Husein Mutahat, who was working under education ministry.
  23. The replica flag must be made with a real silk yarn of Indonesia and using dyes as well as traditional looms. Because the traditional colors proposed does not fulfill the criteria for a red flag, in the end, flag made out by yarn Woll England.
  24. After the first duplicate flag flown when the independence ceremony for 16 years, the flag must be replaced again because it looks faded.
  25. The second duplicate flag is the flag of the longest flown at the National Palace. For at least 30 years, the second duplicate flag fluttering from 1985 to 2014.
  26. In 2015, During the the independence ceremony has used a third replica flag although the third replica flag has actually been made since 1995.
  27. The original red white flag already torn, perforated, perforated due to fungal and insect bites, and there are stains and color fades.
  28. In historical record of Indonesia, the red white flag never been fell into enemy hands, especially colonize.
  29. There is tradition before the independence day of Indonesia in August 17, From June 14 to August 20, the Indonesian people had to be flying the flag in front of his house. Offices, schools and others should also be flying the flag.
  30. The Indonesian people admitted that the flag is an “inscription” which must be saved and should not be lost on the trail of history.

Independence Day Ceremony

Independence Day of Indonesia is a day that sign when Indonesia was declared Independent from the Netherlands. This day is filled with festivities and celebrations. The preparation of independence day ceremony begin well in advance. There are decorations hung all throughout the city with the President’s palace buildings decorated in red and white.Every August 17th Indonesian community attending the flag ceremony at the National Palace. The flag ceremony is also live broadcast on television in all Indonesia. In the each region also carried the flag ceremony.

The national flag was hoisted by Paskibraka, which is the force flag raisers. Paskibraka is shorthand for Pasukan Pengibar Bendera Pusaka or Bendera Pusaka Flag Hoisting Troop, as the official state color party for national events throughout Indonesia. Paskibraka was formed in 1946, when Indonesian capital was moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.

Paskibraka stands Forces National Flag with has main task duplicate heritage flag waving in a memorial proclamation of Indonesian independence. Paskibraka divided into three teams, according to Mr. Husein Mutahar’s idea when he was chosen as in charge of handling the raising flag by President Soeharto, the second president of Indonesia, a level which is the level of the district or city where a flag ceremony led by the regent or mayor, the provincial level where a flag ceremony led by the Governor, and national level in which a flag ceremony led by President and performed at the State Palace, Jakarta.

There are the name of Paskibraka teams :

  1. The group with 17 paskibraka members positioned at the front as a guide or escort, led by a Commander Group (Danpok). This is entirely a group of 17 members of Paskibraka.
  2. The Group with eight paskibraka members positioned behind a group of 17 members as the core troops and the flag bearer. In this group there are four members of the TNI ( National army of Indonesia ) or Police as bodyguards and two young women Paskibraka as the flag bearer (now only one flag bearer), three young men Paskibraka raisers the flag, and three young women Paskibraka in the rear ranks as a complement or fence.
  3. The Group with 45 paskibraka members positioned behind a group of eight members as a bodyguard or security and is a member of the TNI or Police armed. For national level (in national palace court), consisting of 45 groups is Presidential Forces members.

Flag ceremony on August 17th done in two times. First, in the morning at 10.00, the flag-raising and in the afternoon at 17:00 to take down the flag. Ceremonies were performed for approximately one hour. By the time the flag was raised to the top of the mast accompanied by the national anthem Indonesia Raya. Indonesian flag raised by the movement that organized so that the flag reached the top of the flag pole when the song ends.

Flag Anthem

Actually ,the national anthem is “Indonesia Raya”, which means Great Indonesia. The song was composed in 1928. The birth of Indonesia Raya marked the beginning of Indonesian nationalist movements. The song was first introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman. but, red and white flag has own national anthem called Berkibarlah Benderaku or Flutter on, Oh my Flag.  This song was created by the great composer named “Mrs. Soed”.

Saridjah Niung, better known by the name of Mrs. Soed, born in Sukabumi, West Java, on March 26, 1908. She is a musician, music teacher, songwriter, radio broadcaster, playwright and Indonesian batik artists. Songs that were created Mother Soed very famous among preschool education.

The story of the song began in the evening of July 21,1945. It was created by Mrs. Soed after seeing persistence Jusuf Ronodipuro, an office manager RRI (Radio Republik Indonesia) ahead of the first aggression by Netherlands army. In 1947 when Jusuf Ronodipuro, in the 33-year-old, refused orders under threat of weapons of the Netherlands army who asked the red-white flag being hoisted. The threat of a weapon, Jusuf Ronodipuro didn’t scared at all and he replied with a sarcasm threat. Therefore, the sarcasm of Jusuf Ronodipuro inspired the birth of a struggle song which is a Berkibarlah Benderaku.

Meaning of  “Berkibarlah Benderaku” Song

The song has a lot of meaning, either expressed or implied meaning. There are 2 pieces of this song lyrics. Meaning songs Berkibarlah flag on the first lyrics to the first verse that explains how dashing and pulled when the red and white flag in Indonesias’s entire territory of Indonesia. It also explains that the flag was hoisted almost all areas in Indonesia and remains a national flag us.

The next verse of the song also similar of the meaning of national flag. It means, Whoever dared to lower the white flag or replace it with another flag, it will be many Indonesian people who will be upset. they do not want red and white flag was replaced by another flag. What they want is  the red and white flag always and forever as Indonesia’s identity.

Flag is one of symbol that showed our country’s identity. The flag is a piece of cloth used as a proof of respect and sovereignty of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. Therefore,  we must respect and appreciate the red and white flag. Moreover, respect and appreciate the red and white can also be sign as an attitude of respect and appreciate the services of Indonesian fighters who have struggled to defend the independence, because “a Great Nation is a Nation Respecting the hero Services”.

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