Military is a legal organization. It has authority to use lethal force to defend or maintain country from any threat. The military often has working as community. Military was created to fight any violence. Therefore, It requires an extreme level of discipline than in civil society.
In their environment of duties, especially on the battlefield, the military is trained to be firm and discipline. Military life needs a clear hierarchy and the employer must be able to act boldly and decisively. Therefore, they can led the army forces.
Meanwhile, military sometimes called as army forces. Army forces of Indonesia has their own norms and rules. Then They must obey the conduct. Norms and rules are defined with certainty, while the implementation has been monitored strictly.
Types of Military in General
Every country has different type of military. It depends on how government choose them. However, it also depends on the political system. There are three types of military:
- Professional military – The military has a function of defense and security sections. They has skill of using guns. Loyal to the country also has the strong spirit of corps. Moreover, they has a firm military ethics include obey to order, hierarchy and division of tasks.
- Praetorian military – The military who prefers to politic aspects. They undertake the economy aspect rather than take care of defense. It includes minister, parliament, head of regional, or running a business. Praetorian military does politicization throughout social forces in their environment. Therefore, the political institutions become ineffective.
- Revolutionary military – The military who has a illegal intervention. Intervention revolutionary army is a military group which has an illegal activity. It operates clandestinely. Then, this military launched for supports legal revolutionary groups.
Indonesia Army Forces
Indonesia army forces is popular as TNI (Tentara Nasional Indonesia) is a special forces for Indonesia. It composed of three types of army forces. There are Army, Navy, and Air forces. They led by their each chief of army.
Indonesia army forces has been recognized as one of the strongest army forces in the world. They able to make International military stumped. Moreover, this army has various prestigious achievement. It proves that Indonesia has remarkable ability in military aspects.
However, Indonesia army forces have a lower number of soldiers. It because the process of firm requires to enter military forces are very hard. The soldiers have to face a very extreme exercise, even beyond their limit. Therefore, they have a great capability especially on the battle field.
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The independence of Indonesia has faced a hard time even since the beginning. There are many cases from the entry of NICA (Netherlands-Indies Civil Administration), rebellion of Communes in 1945. Moreover, It raised rebellion of regions and the failure of parliamentary elections in 1955 to set out a national constitution.
Proclamation of Indonesia in August 17, 1945, is the source of all political aspect and order of life for Indonesia as new country. Indonesia achieved their independence with a long struggle and twists incident. Then, all fight resulted as echoed the proclamation of independence by Ir. Soekarno and Moehammad Hatta. Therefore, it became a start of new life in nation.
President Soekarno pointed Supriyadi to be minister of security. Indonesia army forces was born laid by uncertainty of country. It was born in under pressure of KNIL (Netherlands-Indies Army) and PETA (Defenders of the Homeland) on behalf of the revolution.
Indonesia military built as a revolutionary patriot army. It unintentionally born in order to lead the patriotism for defend the country.
Therefore, the day after independence, Indonesian Committee of preparation hold a council for three times about establishment of nation.
The important aspect that Indonesia need is military. Military was mentioned as a group of people was organized. Then, Indonesia military known as revolutionary army was born since the revolution. It disciplines to do a battle, different from civil servants. This army in early days of independence still on the verge status.
1. Military in Japanese Era
During the Japanese occupation in 1942 to 1945, military changed became very militant. It contained variety of doctrines to the youth people in Indonesia. Moreover, Mobility of Indonesian helped Japanese to accelerate the process of absorption and knowledge in their military. At that time, Japan was in battle with pacific forces.
Therefore, Japan required troops for assist the Japanese army during war. However, Japanese was continued to face of defeated. Then , their government chosen a decision to trained Indonesia youth under Japanese military. It purposes to helped their army fight ally.
Youth people of Indonesia trained under PETA, Haiho, and Gyugun. Japan trained to all levels society and formed military organization. The Great General, Abdul Haris Nasution served as a member of the warrior under chief of military named Otto Iskandardinata. Both were assist the welfare of PETA soldiers.
On August 18,1945, PETA dissolved as appeared the order from the head of Japanese army. In next day, all members of PETA was disbanded.
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2. Institute of Public Security
After Indonesia independence, Committee for Indonesian independence formed the Institute of Public Security called BKR. It parts of institute of war victim relief. BKR formed as not military organization, but only a local protector. Therefore, This institute disbanded in October 1945.
3. Army of Public Security
BKR transformed into Army of Public Security (TKR) in October 6,1945 with legal declaration. TKR was born for the firm safety of public security. Therefore, Soeprijadi chosen to be a minister of security.
On November 2, 1945, the National government called the former troops of PETA, Heiho, and military indies as well as other youth in Indonesia. For youth who are 18 years and above to registered their name became Army of Public Security. Registration was done in majestic town hall, South Jakarta.
Commander elected in November 12, 1945 during military conference in Jogjakarta.Colonel Soedirman was elected by acclamation. Then in December 18, Soedirman officially assigned as commander in chief.
Army of Public Security was a large organization. It embraced the structure and concept of KNIL organization which contained commandment, division, and regiment. Commandment formed in central, east, west Java and Sumatra. It supervised a number of division. Both commandment nor division has a typical concept of each territorial.
During January 1946, It was a declared of proclamations about the change of name. It changed from Army of Public Security to Safety Army Folk also known as TKR. Meanwhile, Security Ministry was renamed to the Ministry of Defense.
4. Army of the Republic Indonesia
In January 25 1946, Safety Army Folk was renamed to Army of the Republic Indonesia (TRI). Then on February 23, The big committee was formed to established a regulation. There are:
- The Ministry of Defense
- The power of army
- Organization of Army
- The transtition from TKR to TRI
- Positions of non government military.
5. Indonesia National Army
Meanwhile, for united between TRI and non government military, on June 3, 1947, President was established the Indonesia army forces (TNI). Indonesia army forces formed in struggle to defend the independence of Indonesia. There was a threat from Netherlands who want to regain their name and back to colonized Indonesia.
There are critical moments during war of Independence from 1945 to 1949. However, military managed to manifest as reliable army. As the power of rebelion, army forces which still improved themselves must also face a various challenges. Both from country or abroad.
In country, army forces face the pressures from politic to military aspects. They wanted to made army forces in their under controlled. Meanwhile, TNI face the upcoming rebellion such as Communism rebellion and Darul Islam. Both of them could threaten national integrity.
Aside from the county, army forces also face the Netherlands military aggression which have a modern weapons. Aware about the limitations of army forces, Indonesian implemented the universe of people war. It was an united between local people and military to confronted the aggression. Therefore, the integrity and existence of Republic Indonesia has been maintained well.
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B. Republic of Indonesia (RIS)
In accordance with the decision of the Round Table Conference (RTC) formed the Republic of Indonesia (RIS). It also formed the army forces of RIS (APRIS). APRIS is combination between Indonesia military and Colonial army forces. However, In 1950, Republic of Indonesia disbanded and returned formed unitary country as well as the army.
Parliamentary democracy system was adopted by the government during 1950 to 1959. Then, it affected the life of army forces. The interference of politicians are too taken over of army forces internal aspect. It pushed an incident in 1952 and broken the bond between army. On the other hand, the interference forced military entered political activities.
C. Liberal Democracy period
The period of liberal democracy was characterized by various rebellions in the country. In 1950, former KNIL army held a rebellion in Bandung, west Java while Andi Azis led Makassar rebellion in South Sulawesi.
Then, In 1958, the revolutioner government of republic Indonesia held a huge rebellion in Sumatra and north Sulawesi. It became endangered national integrity. However, all of rebellion can be crushed by army forces and other national military.
There are efforts to unity between the national military and national polices. It became the organization of the army forces (ABRI) in 1962. Then, this is an important part of the army forces history in the sixties of decade. So, the unity of the strength in army forces under one command, is expected to achieve efficiency and effectiveness.
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D. Communes Influences
However, carried out its role was difficult. It must not influenced by any political aspects. The biggest challenge came from Communes organization. They always a persistent to attempted their influence in order of life of the Indonesian nation. It included in the military through infiltration and special coaching. As well as used the influence of the President or commander of army forces to served political interests.
The efforts of Communes intensively influenced and culminated throughout a coup against the legitimate of government. Then, Indonesia Nation face a very critical situation. However, Indonesia military managed to overcame that situation while crushed their affiliate with support by local people.
In that horrible situation, ABRI still reformed itself by established internal integration. ABRI made a doctrine called Catur Dharma Eka Karma. The implication of doctrine was for reorganization of ABRI and joint exercises between army forces and polices. As well as education aspects. Meanwhile, ABRI also conducted external integration through their village program.
The main duty of Indonesia army forces is to uphold national sovereignty. Then, they defend the territorial integrity of Indonesia republic based on Pancasila, the constitution of Indonesia in 1945. It also includes to protect citizens from threats and harassment against the integrity of the nation.
Meanwhile, the main duty is divided into two types. First is military operations and other is non military operations.
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Out of war, military operations include the duty for overcome the separation movement of army. It useful for fights the terrorism, securing the border region and national vital objects. There are several duties for Indonesia army forces:
[tr][td]1[/td] [td]Secure the President and Vice President and their families.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]2[/td] [td]Assists the government in the area.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]3[/td] [td]Carry out the task of world peace in accordance with the foreign policy.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]4[/td] [td]Empower the defense of region.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]5[/td] [td]Help representatives of foreign governments who was in Indonesia.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]6[/td] [td]Sustaining power in accordance with defense system.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]7[/td] [td]Help the Indonesian National Police in tasks of security.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]8[/td] [td]Secure a state-level heads of country.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]9[/td] [td]Help cope with natural disasters and humanitarian assistance.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]10[/td] [td]Help public order that is governed by law.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]11[/td] [td]Help in search and rescue in the accident.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]12[/td] [td]Assist the government in securing shipping and aviation against piracy.[/td][/tr]
Meanwhile, in internal aspects, army forces still continue to carry out internal reformation depends of the demands of national reform. TNI remains their commitment to keep the internal reform. It desires to achieve a goals for make a new and better Indonesia in the future. Therefore, they keep their teamwork for upholding the unitary National of Republic Indonesia.
3.CHANGES OF REGULATION
There are some changes between internal and external parts of army forces
- A new paradigm of the army forces in 21st century.
- A new paradigm as the actualization of the role in army forces.
- Separation between police and army forces.
- ABRI was eliminated through a proper decision.
- Military was out of social and political functions and no longer involve in practical politics.
- Military is in neutral position under commitment and consistency.
- The adaption of doctrine adapted to the reform and the Role of the army forces 21st Century.
- Implementation public accountability of the foundations belonging to Army.
- Liquidation of Organization of army forces.
- Liquidation of Social Communication Staff.
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There are eight of obligation which must be obeyed by army forces.
- Being polite to the people.
- Being neighborly to citizen.
- Guard their honor in public.
- Become an example in attitude and simplicity terms.
- Uphold the honor of women.
- Not even scaring and hurting the people.
- Be a leader to overcome the difficulties of the people around them.
5.TYPES OF NATIONAL MILITARY
Indonesia has four types of Army forces. There are Army, Navy, Air and Special forces.
a. Army Forces
Army forces as part of Indonesia military. They are trained in extreme ways and strict environment. Most of them are live in dormitory.
They are away from families to protect country. The principal duty is also to keep the national sovereignty. There are several duties written in PPPA of army forces, the regulation No. 57 in December 2013, stated that:
- Bring the duties of army in the defense field. It holds by perform the military operations between war and other than war. It includes priorities such as:
- Improving the ability of territorial intelligence.
- Training to create the conducive conditions.
- Developing both centralized and regional powers.
- Maintaining the operational capabilities.
- Setting up of international military cooperation unit.
- Improving units in order to avoid terrorism threats.
- Increasing capabilities in order to keep President and Vice President safe.
- Assist the government in the region through operation programs
- Bring the duties of army in order to maintain security of land. Such as:
- Preparing Army units to carry out border security operations in outer islands.
- Continuing the development of facilities for new unit in conflict region and borders.
- Continuing the mapping of undefined territory, especially in border and outer islands.
- Bring the duties of army in order to maintain the strength of army. Such as:
- The development of army directed to carry out their main duty.
- Setting up the operational capability in professional ways. It uses for maintain and increase the stability.
- Keep reforming in internal environment on sustainable aspects like structures, cultures, and doctrine.
- Improving professionalism by increase between quality and quantity of education.
- Implementation of empowerment in defense areas. It done by organizing the planning, proper development, control of the defense in region. It based on guidance of territory. Such as:
- Assist the government to prepare the national potential into a defense forces.
- Assist the government to empower people as the supporting forces.
- Help the government organize basic military training.
b. Navy Forces
Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago. Then, for keep country safe, It needs the power guard especially in ocean. Navy forces is part of the unity in National army. It currently scattered across the territorial of waters in Indonesia.
Navy forces has a duties to serve as a liaison, unifying and adhesive the nation. They have a motto “Jayamahe Jalesveva”. It means as posture about the firm navy forces which are strong, huge, and professional. Therefore, navy forces have a special duty for keep the archipelago become great. There are several duties for Navy Forces, such as:
1.Enforce the law for maintain the security of sea areas
According to legislation, the first duty of Navy is enforce the law and maintain the security of marine areas. Indonesia has a lot of territorial waters and marine areas. Therefore, Navy is needed to keep the safety of the entire region of the sea.
2. Performing the duty of Navy Diplomacy
The navy has an important role as diplomat. It helps to maintain the resilience and safety. Then, It also support law enforcement in the area of the sea. The diplomacy is done when there are several policies both nationally and internationally.
3.Implementation of Empowerment Defense Areas
Empowerment of sea areas are also an important function of the navy in Indonesia. It defenses a condition which has a vulnerable points in waters. Moreover, It useful for remains them guarded and well maintained. Therefore, the sovereignty maintains safety especially in maritime and marine aspects.
4. Maintain the Security and Stability in Maritime Aspect
Safeguarding between the stability and security in maritime territory. The sea areas which parts of the entire territory in archipelago.
5.Prevent from Attacks of the Sea
Navy always alert and ready in their position to move quickly. It helps to guard and directly defend the homeland from threat attack from enemy.
Moreover,there are various signs of anything suspicious and might interfere the safety of sovereignty. Therefore, Navy forces must be quickly and swiftly to safeguard. It prevents a horrible incident happened.
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C. Air Forces
Air forces also must to guarantee the sovereignty and territorial integrity as well as other forces. As the power of air force in Indonesia, they have a noble vision to become a professional forces.
Their vision such as make air forces become efficient, effective, modern, dynamic and reliable.
Therefore, they can maintain their firm in order to uphold and defend the sovereignty and integrity of country. Moreover, Air forces also have their capability. Especially when it comes of battle in air battlefield. Meanwhile, Air forces in charge as :
- Bring out the duties of air force military in the field of defense.
- Bring out the main duty as army force in the development of air force strength abilities.
- Maintain security in airspace according to national and international laws.
- Implement of empowerment in air region.
Air forces also has a mission to make their duties successful. There are:
- Improve the implementation of the functions of intelligence and security.
- Implement the strength and capacity.
- Realizing the capabilities, personnel, facilities as well as power systems.
- Bring out humanitarian activities and social events.
- Increasing the bond with other foreign military.
- Research and development of strategies and defense systems.
- Increasing the planning, controlling, and monitoring environment.
Aside of mission, Air forces also has a vision to realize the professional posture and structure of air forces. It growth to be an effective, efficient, modern, reliable, and dynamic forces. On the other hand, It requires for uphold and defend the sovereignty an integrity of Indonesia safety.
D. Military Special Forces
Under the Indonesian military forces, there are several military special forces. They help and support the national forces to protect country from any threat and violence actions. The special forces known as their impossible but great abilities between defense and offense of any attacks.
Aside of unpredictable abilities, The special forces also known to use masks or other facial coverings to hide their physical appearance. Its purpose to interfere the psychological side of opponents. Meanwhile, Masks of them are designed to look creepy.
Therefore, Each special forces are equipped with deadly abilities and highly reliable. It useful to maintain the safety of country. There are several special forces which are feared for some countries.
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One of Indonesian elite forces which already popular for his greatness ability. Kopassus is part of the elite army serve in secret and dangerous duties. Their soldiers have a capability that can not be doubted.
Moreover, the toughness of Kopassus has proven by many achievement in the world stage. Even soldiers of Kopassus has been able to beat the famous of US Army in term of strength.
Kopassus was established on July 24, 1967. Their headquarter is in Cijantung, East Jakarta. The candidate of their soldiers must pass a very tight election in internal term. It starts from the beginner until the veteran who has been active in duty. It includes the skill of high intelligence which can be more developed.
In a clandestine operation duty, Kopassus unit can move without a proper identity, or undercover work. They will be equipped with a civic identity to disguise themselves as civil servants.
The other operation which done by Kopassus is their ability to act in behind. It duties are difficult. Sometimes, the soldier face the risk of heavy duties and away from their families. Moreover, some of their families can recognizes them as their child or sibling. For Kopassus soldiers, it better to return with only the honorable name than fail on the battlefield.
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Kopaska is the commando under Navy forces. It usually called as “Pasukan Katak” or frog troops. This special navy forces established since 50 years ago and became formidable elite forces.
Kopaska soldiers are elected marines who has the firmness and the unbelieveable strength.
The main duty of Kopaska is conduct the amphibious operation in water areas. On the other hand, Kopaska improved the safety of Indonesia sea from terrorist attack. Kopaska will attack warships in case of war happened.
Kopaska established in March 31, 1962 by Ir.Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia. Its purpose to supports the military campaign in Irian Jaya (Now is Papua). They have their own motto “Hana Tan Tan Wighna Sirna” means “Insuperable Obstacles”.
The development of Kopaska divided into two groups for east and west fleet. The west group based on Jakarta while the east based on Surabaya. Their main duties are destroy underwater installation, Storms the ship and enemy bases, then Amphibi operation.
Kopaska has their own primary responbility. It includes of attacking periscope, demolition underwater, sabotage or assaults the enemy bases.
Meanwhile, Paskhas is a elite forces under air military forces. Their unique style is having the Orange Baret in uniform. This elite forces has a strong ability in attack between in land, sea, and air. The soldiers must pass special and difficult education to join in Paskhas.
Qualifications of Paskhas require a commando to be able of carry out their duties in professional manner. Then, It will be supplied a special abilites according to each specialization. They must be ready in every situation.
The soldiers of Paskhas have a several duties such as:
- Seize the enemy air bases – The soldiers have deployed from the air then grab the target quickly and instantly. Then, after the enemy bases were captured, It must be re-operated as a supporting base for further attacks.
- Have a meteorology knowledge – It needed when they operates airplanes.
- Infiltrate in enemy bases – It done by a precursor forces. Before the attack, they infiltrate with opponent in their bases and gather some data about them.
- Keep the pilot safety – It difficult to save pilot while the soldiers are on the air of battlefield. therefore, Its need the special skill for the emergencies forces.
- Face the anti-terror problems – The soldiers have trained to become experts in releasing the hostages. It includes war against terror.
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It established since in the end of 2003. They consist of 10 strong Batalyons. One Batalyon is equivalent to three times of Indonesia army forces.
Then, each Batallion has up to 700 soldiers which received a difficult training for six months.
They have special method of training. Training uses modern technology called warfare. Therefore, they are reliable to support army forces either in land or air.
Meanwhile, in Navy forces, Batalyon is a elite forces formed by a strict selection from marine soldiers. They must have excellent physical ability while pass the standard of physiological level as special forces. The soldiers must bring out their duties individually. They must be able to adapt around their surroundings. Then the ability of infiltration and ex filtration to or from the enemies.
5. DENSUS 88
One of elite forces which already known in entire Indonesia. Densus 88 is an anti-terror forces and in charge of protecting Indonesia from the dangers of terrorism.
They are special soldiers who have the ability to defuse the bomb. Their other capabilities are very unusually strong.
This elite forces are already received many achievements which make other country amazed. They have approximately up to 400 personnel. Densus 88 is composed of experts of investigating, Gegana teams, and snipers. They are expected to drown out the amount of terrorism and its movement.
They have their own qualifications to being Densus 88 soldiers.There are three specific things, such as:
- The personnel must have ability as detective reliable. Mainly related in specific crimes include drugs, illegal logging or fishing.
- They must able to make a detection, analysis, and counter of intelligence.
- Capable of improving their performance in conflict aspects.
- They must have ability to negotiate. In case of hostage by terrorist under the law firms.
Unit 81 is part of Kopassus. They are focus in handle between security issues and the problem of anti-terrorism.
Nowadays, conflicts often require immediate action, sniper tactics, and the accuracy of reading the situation.
Moreover, Unit 81 also has a skill to crackdown terrorist in a short time. They also can release a hostage with a tactic and strategic negotiation. Unit 81 is the best warrior of all army personnel. They have their headquarter in Cijantung, east Jakarta.
There are special abilities of this unit but not published publicly. As well as the number of personnel. Unit 81 of Kopassus also learn about how to tame a bomb. In this case, Unit 81 has been grown by learn about technology. As well as the development of terrorism nowadays. Therefore, Unit 81 along with Densus 88 cooperate to reduce the increasing amount of terrorist in Indonesia.
The ability of military soldiers are already known as the best soldiers in the world. It can rearranged defense while break the concentration of enemies. There are several capabilities of Indonesia army.
- Hellweek – One of hardest training in Navy forces. Soldiers may impose to dive for hours with hands and feets tied. The soldiers are forced to control the time between breathing and diving.
- Shoot with eyes close – Soldiers are trained their sixth sense. It starts from shooting the target, then reading up the motorcycle. It purposes for make a soldiers are ready any time they needed.
- Throw the knife – Soldiers also forced to have a skill for fighting with a knife. Therefore, in addition of fighting, Soldiers also trained to throw the knifes and axes in proper action.
- Infiltrate in the sea – Indonesia military already known as their ability in the sea. Navy forces has an ability to infiltration into enemy territory with secret movement. The movement is called as “Renang Rintis”. The swimmer secretly move without sound, splashing water or even air bubbles.
Alutsista means all things related to weapons systems, vehicles, and military necessaries. Weapons are use directly during war in battlefield. Then, All of weapon use to threat a danger and attack a country that committed by military forces
History of Alutsista
Former president of Indonesia, Soekarno was formed a team for national weapons aspect. He told to buy weapons from United States of America but rejected. Then, the government switched to Uni Soviet. They lent up to USD 2,5 billion to Indonesia for buy weapons.
Meanwhile, the western countries headed by United States hold embargo to Indonesia in 90s. Then, the air forces became paralyzed because a shortage of weapons. Russia came and offered SU-30 MKI to Indonesia, but the purchased blocked by monetary crisis.
Nowadays, National military has diversified their weapons. They begin to buy weapons from United States. In 2008, Indonesia received a credit of USD 1 billion to buy weapons from US.
Types of Alutsista
Indonesia has ability to make other countries amazed. Their special forces enter top of best elite forces in the world. Even can beat Australia and Malaysia forces. Neighbors of Indonesia sometimes ask to train their military under Indonesian military forces.
Aside of buy weapons from other countries, Indonesia has risen to be powerful military by produce their own weapons and equipment. Moreover, they even export some handmade military products to abroad.
1.Weapons from Abroad
a. Tank BMP 3F
Tank BMP 3F is amphibians types. It able to move on land and water alternately. This type has a very sophisticated technology.
Therefore, many countries think twice about equip this equipment.
Meanwhile, Tank BMP 3F has a highly accurate digital equipment. There is a shooting hole uses for SS-1 production.
This tank also capable in water for up to seven hours. It useful for defense all forces to attack enemies in battlefield. Shooting hole helps force to shoot accurately to their target.
The construction of tank facilitates the modernization. Indonesia only needs to make improvements without having new purchases that could burden national finances. This tank is also easy to maintain so many obsessed countries have considerable amounts. Currently, besides Indonesia and Russia, countries that had this tank is Ukraine, Cyprus, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates.
b. Sukhoi SU-35
This kind of fighter jet which is the latest equipment owned by Indonesia. It uses for operate jet engine from Russia. In addition, Sukhoi 35 predicted to defeat the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Falcon by United States.
Moreover, Sukhoi 35 is able to disappear from the radar because the enemy has a speed of up to twice the speed of sound.
The aircraft with twin-engine is regarded as the fifth generation aircraft. It able to perform maneuvers, stopped abruptly in the air. Even It can capable of flying at high altitudes and bring a lot of air missiles quickly.
The firm in military forces especially in democratic country make them strong. Along with their structural hierarchy, They can manage their decisive role very well from the outside (external) into the inside (internal) development.
c. MLRS Astros II Mk6
Purchasing rocket launcher will reduce the treat of attacks from other countries. Astros is rocket capable of carrying out the latest series of tactical and strategic level operations.
It established since 1983 and developed until now. Astros is a multi-caliber rockets which can be fired several variants of ammunition.
Then, It contains seven calibers with a range varying between 9 km to 300 km. The systems of weapon is the latest system in weapon technology.
Astros MK6 is modern than the Astros II MK.4 and MK.5 owned Malaysian Army Soldiers.
While Singapore has a HIMARS M142 MLRS Lockheed Martin, the US, with a range of 2-300 km, with the number of launcher per truck 1/6. Astros rocket designed as self-propelled rocket.
D. Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano
Aircraft made from Brazil finally delivered to Indonesia in 2012. 21 the latest Super Tucano aircraft types deployed in Abdul Rachman Saleh airport in Malang.
Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano is a attacker type even though not as fast as the F-16 or Sukhoi.
These types of aircraft use for flight training before using other more advanced aircraft. Therefore, this aircraft is very reliable in terms of maneuverability while attacks with great precision. It helps the for soldiers to their ability and capability especially in air battlefield.
EMB-314 Super Tucano requires extra protection. The aircraft is equipped with a protection system of protection for the cabin crew. It also equipped with self-defense system. There are RWR (Radar Warning Receiver), Maws (Missile Approach Warning System), and chaff / flare dispenser.
2.Weapons from Indonesia
a. Smoke Warhead
Smoke warhead has an important role to destroy enemy targets through information from their weapons. the pilot determines the exact position of the fall of their rocket.
Weapons Made in Indonesia has been exported to foreign countries, as many as 260 head of rocket ‘Smoke Warhead’ sent to Chile. Indonesia’s military are in great demand by the military.
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Assault made in Indonesia by Pindad cooperation. It a second generation from Assault SS1.
SS2 has more energic and dynamic design, better accuracy, and also resistant to high humidity and lighter. It equips telescope named Trijikon.
SS2 mounts silencer, night vision googles, and grenade launcher. The assault can be fold, so it make easier to be carried by soldiers.
The assault contains ball stopper. When it runs out of bullets fired, the shooter does not have to cock the weapon. It causes the weapon back to charges itself. SS2 currently uses as a regular weapon for Kopassus, Kopaska. Most countries try to negotiate with Pindad for purchase this beneficial weapon.
FPB-57 is a fast patrol boat is a default evidence of the PAL cooperation ability to supply a warships for the Navy forces. There were 12 units of FPB-57 appeared in 1975. Fpb-57 becomes main weapon in sea battlefield.
Admiral Sudomo, expressed his desire to build their own warship.
Then along with BJ Habibie, The third president of Indonesia, also the famous shipbuilding in German, they made a firm warship with a aethestic interior.
FPB-57 consists of four warships, namely KRI Swordfish 631, 632 Lemadang KRI KRI Hiu 634, 635 and KRI Layang.FPB-57 has several advantages. The adoption of anti-ship missile C-802 launchs in each ship. There is a superior weapon with 57 mm of caliber mounted on the side of bow ship. Then for the operations, the amount of ammunition is up to 120 bullets.
Tank Anoa is to become the best selling in other countries. Malaysia also booked up to 32. On the other hand, Tank Anoa has been tested in countries like lebanon desert when used by UN peacekeepers.
This tank operated by the Mechanised Infantry Battalion, 203 Kamuning Arya. Tank Anoa become one of the pride of the domestic defense industry. On the other hand, it also has been tested in the assignment of Garuda troops overseas.
The looks of the tank is so sophisticate and fascinating. Meanwhile, it has a length of 6 meters, 2.5 meters wide and 2.75 meters high. It can be used with a speed of 80 km on a smooth road. A cruising range of 600 km. There are soft suspension so it can devour agile off-road terrain, the troops in them as comfortable and not too felt the shocks.
Tank Anoa fitted with SM2 machine gun in 7.62 mm. In addition there is an automatic grenade launcher. Effective enough to break down and destroy the defense of enemies.
There are several achievements of Indonesia military in the world. Such as :
- The Indonesian military forces once listed as the most powerful military force.
- Kopassus in the top three world elite forces chosen in the Discovery Channel Military edition 2008. They are able to beat the elite forces of several other countries which known for their accurate technology, digital versatile and super powerful.
- Kopassus is in second rank of conducting briliant strategic military operations. Such as movement, action, infiltration, and intelligence. Meanwhile, The first rank is a Delta force of United States of America.
- National force has became permanent partners of the united Nations since 1957. It already more than 30 times deployed to maintain and keep the peace in the world.
- Do a diplomatic mission. This mission is kind of indicate to tell the world. National forces not only able to keep the peace with weapons equipment. They also can contribute with cultures and various humanitarian missions.
- More than 80% of the Kopassus officers participated in the military training in Africa
- Kopassus succeded to free all of hostages in Garuda Indonesia airplane. There was conspiration of large scale piracy incident in 1981.
- Indonesia for the first time hosting a National flag on top of Everest mountain. It listed as the first south-east Asia to ever set foot on the highest mountain.
- In Brazil, army forces awarded The Best Fair Play for Orienteering military in World Military Games 5th 2011 in Brazil.
- Indonesia forces assist the victims of powerful typhoon called Haiyan which hit Philippines in November 2013.
- Army forces won the overall champion in the annual competittion at the ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet (AARM) 24th held in Vietnam in 2014.
- National forces restrained to evacuate six tons of explosives active in a village located at Camp Beal, Bangui, Central Africa.
- Kopassus won International shooting championship called AASAM 2014 in Australia. The forces gained 32 gold medals, 15 silver medals, and 20 bronze medals. Meanwhile, Australia as the host was in second with six golds, 15 silver, and 20 bronze medals.
- National forces became the ultimate champion in the Competition shoot BISAM 11th. It held on January 15 until February 2, 2015 in Brunei Darussalam.
- Army forces became the ultimate champion in Australian Army Skill and Arms Meeting (AASAM) 2016 di Puckapunyal Military Range, Victoria, Australia. They claims consecutively become the champion for eight years.
The firm and reliable of National forces is make country is more safety and comfortable. Indeed, with a extreme training and excellent education to increase intelligence, National forces can be recognized as the most powerful forces in the world.