Sufism in this context are practiced as the true way to purify the soul and heart, draw closer to God and draw closer to His Paradise (away from the world). Sufi is a term for those who study the science of tasawwuf, the science that deepens the piety of Allah swt.Istilah Sufi [saints] finally used by the world widely, not only for religious leaders of a particular religion, but for someone who spiritually and spiritually has mature and whose life no longer needs and is attached to the world and everything in it, except for its basic needs only.
Sufism (Tasawwuf) or Sufism is the science to know how to purify the soul, clarify morals, build dhahir or inner aimed to obtain eternal happiness. Sufism was originally a zuhud movement (away from the mundane) in Islam, and in its development gave birth to a tradition of Islamic mysticism.
- Conducted by the zuhud people
The beginning of Sufism in Indonesia began to emerge in the time of Tâbi’în, without specific names and terms.The spreading of Sufism conducted by some worship experts who have met with some of the friends of the Prophet Muhammad. At that time they were known as Nussâk (worshipers), zuhhâd (zuhud people), people who cried easily, pious people, repentors and other similar names. In essence, they are the people who are known to be the experts of worship, zuhud experts, and decide themselves from worldly affairs, especially worshipers in Iraq, Kufa and Bashrah. It could be noticed from their excessive attitudes in their self-restraint and adding something that is not in the companions of the Prophet Muhammad.
- The history of Sufism in the world
Some opinions say that the ideology of Sufism is understood that has developed before the Prophet Muhammad became Rasullullah. And new Muslims in Iraq and Iran (around the 8th century AD) who were formerly converts to non-Muslim religions or embraced certain ideologies. Although already converted to Islam, his life still maintains his royalty and distances himself from the luxuries and pleasures of the world.
This is driven by his sincerity to practice his teachings, that is in his life very humble and self-humiliated against God. They always wore clothes that at that time included a very simple dress, the sheepskin sheep’s clothing, until it became known as a kind of mark for the adherents. That is why then the idea then called Sufi ideology, Sufism or Sufism. Meanwhile, those who are adherents are called Sufi people.
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- Sufism contributed to the spread of Islamic religion in Indonesia
The profession of Islamic propagators in Indonesia is mostly scholars and muballigh who deliberately came to bring the light of Islam. One of the keys to the great success of the preachers is the method of Islamization without coercion, flexible, and merging with the natives. The developed approach tends to the teachings of Sufism and Culture. The development of Islam in the Indonesia use the peaceful ways. In dealing with the cultural values of Islamic societies in Indonesia do not directly confront, but dialogue continuously and patiently.
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- The role of Sufism in Islam Contribution
There is a tendency, the Sufi trades are more active and have a mature plan to go the Eastern countries. The Sufis of the Middle East in the twelfth century who sailed to the East are known to have an excess of knowledge about the religions, languages, customs and political systems of the Eastern countries including India and Southeast Asia. So, they came with a mature knowledge of everything about the East. The social and anthropologic knowledge is thoroughly studied before going to the East. There is a possibility, they first do research seriously. This is evident from the precise choice of language they use in Islamic da’wah approach. Malay was then a language that has not been touched by the view of life and Hindus-Buddha concepts. This language is considered pure. And, not widely used by the people of the archipelago.
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- Sufism in the Period of Walisongo
Sufi streams in Indonesia started or started there since the time of Wali songo (the nine guardian). At this time Sufism has developed quite rapidly in Indonesia. Wali songo (nine guardians) is the pioneer and developer of Islam (Islamization) in the island of Java in the 15th century. The development of Sufism has begun since the time / time of the Prophet. Then it keeps growing until the period of development.
Wali Songo in the First Period, at the time of Sultan Muhammad 1 ruled the Turkish kingdom, he inquired about the development of Islamic religion to merchants from Gujarat (India). From them the Emperor got news that on the island of Java there are two kingdoms of Hindu Majapahit of Pajajaran. Among the people there are Islam but only limited to Gujarat family traders who married the indigenous population in port cities.
The Emperor then sent letters to the Islamic authorities in North Aftika and the Middle East. The contents asked the scholars’ to send to the island of Java. So collected nine scholars’ highly knowledgeable and have karomah. In the year 808 Hijriyah or 1404 CE the scholars’ went to the island of Java.
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- The emergence of the Thariqat Movement in Indonesia
Besides the tariqats that has a connection with the science of Sufism we find in Indonesia, especially in times of crisis of life and spiritual destruction, after World War II, the various streams and movements of the mind from the principle of its purpose seem to seek a relationship with Sufi life. By religious ministry Section of the flow and movement of religion, reports on movements were reported. Tariqat is a journey devoted to people who are going to Allah SWT without any hope of getting a position and a rank.
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- Sufism began to be strongly opposed by some scholars
Some scholars of the Sufi opponents argue that there is an exaggeration in zuhud and worship that is not found in other (Islamic) cities. They argue that if they look deeper into the teachings of classical and modern tasawwuf, and their utterances are quoted and narrated in both past and present tasawwuf books, they will see a very clear distinction between the teachings and the teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Some of those who oppose say that tasawwuf or sufism is a doctrine that infiltrated into Islam. This is evident in the deeds of tasawwuf’s experts, foreign deeds of worship and far from the guidance of Islam.
Those are the history of Sufism in Indonesia. In Indonesia, the religion of Islam is divided into groups. However, they must stay side by side and keep alignment together.