Transmigration is the movement of people from one island to another. It is usually happen in a condition where of a densely populated island to a sparsely populated island. Indonesia consists of thousands of islands where the population is uneven.
The gap between a very populated island and the island that has not been inhabited by humans is far enough. That is why the government create this program for those who want to get the better life in the future.
- Natural disaster
When an area is closed to a very active volcano, transmigration is needed to provide a new place that safer from the previous place. This effort is also to reduce the number of casualties and victims due to a natural disaster.
The island of Borneo is the right destination for transmigration because there is no volcano and is relatively safe from earthquakes because it is not passed by the earth’s plate. It would be little bit different with Java where a lot of volcanoes there.
- The hope of better life
Most of migrants follow this program because they want to get a better life than before. With transmigration they could get at least two hectares of land and benefits. Those capitals from the government can be used as agricultural land that will increase the income of migrants.
Transmigration for this reason is usually placed on islands that have plantations or have certain agricultural potential. Borne and Sumatra is the fittest island to be the destinations of transmigration because there are very potential for the growing of oil palm and rubber plantations.
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- Development Project
There used to be a village where all the inhabitants were transmigrated because there was a dam construction project. All the villagers moved to another place without any exception. The name of this transmigration program is the Bedol Desa. It named Bedol Desa since all of the people in one village will be moved at once in another place.
The islands that can be used as the destination of this type of transmigration are Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua.
- Uneven distribution of population
Java Island is the most populated island in the world. Currently the population in Java reaches approximately 160 million inhabitants. Transmigration is needed so that the population density in Java can be reduced by moving some residents to Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Papua. It is expected that the island in that area can also be developed.
However, it is unfair that all of the economy, government, even education activity is just centered in Java. Hopefully, other islands could be as live as Java.
- The lack of vacancy
In the place that some people stayed before, they don’t have any job. Some of them even think that there is no vacancy that fit with their skill or ability. The vacancy that available in the destination of transmigration becomes the attraction of some people to join this program.
Moreover, the vacancy in the populated island like Java is limited. And most of the vacancies need some specialized skill and education. That is why it would be difficult for some people with limited skill to get a job in populated place.
- Work Mutation
Some people prefer to join transmigration due to work mutation. It is something that often happens, especially if you work in a company that has several branch offices or subsidiaries. Work mutation could happen due to your own request or company policy.
Mutations can be made between branches in the same city, either outside the city or even abroad for a multinational company. However, for some people that would join transmigration due to work mutation, they would not need the job from the government anymore.
- Social conflict
Social conflict that happens in a hometown usually becomes the factors for some people to join transmigration. There could be some various kinds of social conflict, such as conflict with the family, friends, or neighbor. This is categorized as not conducive situation where the people want to move to the greater place to get a job.
Social conflict also happens between among tribes, religions, or even races. Some people often couldn’t get a deal on it. That is why transmigration could be the solution.
Some people often join transmigration for social purpose. It is usually done by some certain professions for a dedication. Some professions that usually do something like this are doctor, teacher, and midwifery. The aim of their volunteer is to apply their skill and ability toward the people in the remote area.
The period of becoming volunteers could be various, but it should be at least two years if they make it as the requirement for being civil servant. Sometimes there is also a governance program for some professions to be a volunteer.
- The limited place in homeland
For some people who want to create a business, the space and land that available is the main factor. If there is no space available anymore, or the space and place is not so affordable, they would prefer join transmigration to get the larger area for their business.
Moreover, in Borneo there is a lot of empty land that is potential to create a business. The natural resources there also really supported. Through some of those factors, some businessmen would be attracted to join transmigration.
- The desire to live in a different place
Some of people are truly want to live in a remote area and make it as a good place for living. There are a number of people who start to be bored with the hustle-bustle a city and prefer to choose the quieter place to live. That is why they would join transmigration and really start their new life there. In the new place they hope to find a peace life.
- The request from government to develop the remote area
Government sometimes would point some or several people to join transmigration to make the destination of transmigration place become better place. Some remote areas in Indonesia even don’t have any electricity and proper facility.
That is why the government would request some people to build an area to become the proper place for living. Moreover, recently the development of the infrastructure in some remotes area is done very massively.
- The land in Java is getting narrower
The total population in Indonesia by population census in 2010 reached 237,641,326 people with an area of 1,904,569 km2. With a population of such numbers Indonesia is on the 4th rank after China, India and the United States. Java area is only 120.297,84 km2 while the population of Java 118,441,720 inhabitants.
Just imagine how is the density the island of Java? Such population density raises the problem of the narrowness of agricultural land, slums in big cities, fires due to mutual houses, and various criminal acts. That is why the government would ask several people to move to the different island.
Those are the causes of transmigration. Whatever they said about transmigration, the existence of this program is also able to reduce the problem due to the density of the population. By following the transmigration of the population gained a more prosperous life. So, transmigration is not such a bad choice to choose.