Tourism today is very crowded talked about because by developing the tourism sector then the influence on other sectors is very large therefore the demand for tourism is increasing along with the level of human needs are increasing from year to year.
The development of the tourism area certainly does not grow just like that without any effort done, therefore the availability of facilities and infrastructure is needed for the development of this sector and in order to become one of the mainstay sectors. However, Environmental quality is an integral part of the tourism industry.
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For developers and tour operators, the quality of the environment should get the main attention. Tourism is an industry associated with tourist destinations with the characters of beauty, balance, natural, health, and environmental quality is assured. Currently, the word “neighborhood” often emerges as one of the keys to successful tour operators.
Here are some of the environmental impacts of tourism in Indonesia that need to be known, both positive and negative impacts:
1. As a Source of Great Income for the State
One of the perceived impacts in the tourism sector is to promote increased economic growth as well as state revenues. Because taxes and income in terms of tourism contribute a lot in the field of business, development, tourist areas and many more.
2. Open Jobs for the Community
One of the environmental impacts of tourism in Indonesia is to provide employment opportunities for many Indonesians.
With tourism development such as hotels, resorts, restaurants, natural attractions, and others filter qualified human resources to professional workers. In this way, it can reduce unemployment and provide a better economic life for workers.
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3. As a State Foreign Exchange
Another impact for existing tourism in Indonesia is to make the country’s foreign exchange large enough. From taxes as well as other income contributes broadly and certainly enhances much larger economic growth. This is certainly a state income that can be used in other fields.
4. Impact of Waste Problems
One proof of the environment is waste. Other tourism impacts to the environment that can be observed and disputed namely the waste problem.
Waste generated visitors into environmental problems that can affect the quality of tourist destinations. It is easy to happen, where the size of the tourist destination has a small size, liquid waste usually comes from hotels, homesteads, and restaurants scattered in tourist destinations.
It is inevitable that these places are part of the ecotourism accommodation. However, the attention and handling of wastewater produced are often very poor.
To overcome the water population that occurs, two strategies are generally taken that is to reduce the sources of pollutants and treatment of liquid waste in order not to endanger the environment.
5. Expansive Air Pollution
Air pollution due to mismanagement of tours often threatens human health. Air pollution as an impact of the development of the tourism industry, among others, comes from the burning of gas and the release of toxic materials in the air. This is the result of air pollution such as vehicles, smoke and so forth.
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6. Excessive Exploitation of Nature
There is a lot of evidence that the consumption of natural resources is increasing and excessive. These needs are often filled with the exploitation of natural materials from protected areas, bamboo, carved wood, hard-skinned grains, animal bones, shells of marine animals, and coral reefs that should be protected.
7. Impact On Ecosystem Disorders
When disturbed, the ecosystem may be lost and decreased or may be lost. Or vice versa, they will try to reach the initial state before the disturbance occurs so as to achieve a state as usual, stable or in a climactic state. The beach is often under intense pressure from the impact of coastal tourism destination development.
Basically, the term beach is used to describe a meeting place between land and sea. Coral reef ecosystem is one of the productive marine waters ecosystems with high species biological richness. This can cause the environment of tourism in Indonesia to be damaged and lost.
8. Exploitation of Forest and Marine Animals
Disorders of wildlife may occur due to the disruption of food sources. And its community structure, as well as its productivity. The honey-eating birds and other insectivorous eaters will disappear from the area, as their supporting plants decline.
Tourists can reduce the productivity of plants, such as grass and herbs as it is trampled or damaged. Or for other reasons that allow the low productivity of plants that contribute to animals. Exotic plant seeds have the opportunity to enter because carried by humans intentionally or unintentionally.
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9. The Crisis of Water Resources
The impact of tourism sector development on water resources is well known. Water is an important resource, in which humans are highly dependent.
Clean water is a necessity of mutation and a degradation of its quality (due to the pollution and decrease of its quantity, that is, because of the reduced flow of water) becomes a real threat to humans.
Not all tourist destinations have good and abundant water resources, some areas, even have no water source at all, if any, rivers formed by the effects of heavy rains and is temporary. In the dry season, the river will dry up.
10. Impact of Exotic Species
The development of a tourist destination opens up opportunities for the growth and development of exotic species. Tourists often visit tourist destinations with food containing seeds, tubers or other parts that can grow.
Exotic species often escape from the supervision of national park managers, until then their existence is known to threaten the stability of the ecosystem. Potential entry of exotic plants can occur due to the demand for landscape landscapes that complement tourist destinations.
A tourist destruction, usually “enhanced” in the presence of beautiful flowering plants or other beautiful characters. Commonly found in natural destinations.
The following explanations and other examples of the environmental impacts of tourism in Indonesia, apart from those mentioned above:
- Another impact is to provide opportunities for animals to move locations if their environment is polluted or disturbed. This will certainly cause adverse effects on the condition of the animals.
- The population of animals will experience a decline in terms of breeding. Because their environment is threatened and damaged by the impact of the environment.
- As a result, the coastal environment is damaged (eg, deforestation for coastal accommodation). In addition, coral reef damage, loss of traditional coastal land use and coastal erosion are some of the consequences of tourism development.
- As a result, landslides, soil erosion, depletion of mountain vegetation (which can become the lungs of the community) and potential excessive visual and flood pollution because the mountains are unable to absorb rainwater.
- Illegal logging, tree clearing, the dangers of forest fires (due to campfire fires) and the collection of flowers, plants, and fungi for the needs of tourists are some of the activities that damage vegetation.
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The first explanation of the 13 environmental impacts of tourism in Indonesia, may be our learning to maintain nature and the environment.