Rice fields are cultivated land and irrigated for planting rice. For this purpose, the paddy field should be able to support the pool of water because rice requires flooding for a certain period of growth. To irrigate the rice fields are used irrigation systems from springs, rivers or rainwater. The last rice field is known as rain-fed rice field, while the other is irrigated rice field. Rice grown in rice fields is known as wetland rice (lowland rice).
On high-pitched land, paddy fields are printed on terraces or better known as terraces or swales to avoid erosion and retain water. Terraced rice terraces are found on the hillsides or mountains in Java and Bali. Here are the facts of Indonesian rice field. You should see these pasages to view more.
- The rice fields are concentrated in Java Island
Rice fields are more commonly found in areas of western Indonesia, especially Java Island. Almost 60% of the total rice production comes from the island that also has the largest population in Indonesia. Among all provinces, East Java is the region that has the largest rice field, which is 2.29 million hectares or about 15% of the total area of rice in Indonesia.
- Indonesia is the third largest rice producer of the world
Indonesia is the third largest rice producer in the world with total production up to 75.6 million tons. However, to meet domestic demand, Indonesia also has to import rice from other countries as much as 1 million tons. In 2014, the largest Rice Producing Countries in the world is the People’s Republic of China that produces up to 206.5 million tons of rice or about 27.8% of total worldwide production.
- Indonesia does rice import every year
Although Indonesia is the third largest country producing the most rice in the world, Indonesia still needs to import rice almost every year (although it is usually only to keep rice stock levels). This situation is caused by farmers using unproductive agricultural techniques coupled with large per capita consumption of rice (by large populations).
- 42% of rice fields in Indonesia are in Java
Most of the rice fields are in Java. Recorded as much as 42% of rice fields in Indonesia are in Java from a total of 8.1 million hectares of rice fields. The area of land that became rice fields all piled up on the island of Java. Moreover, the distribution of agricultural land on another island is also very potential. Currently the area of rice fields in Java Island is 3.4 million hectares or 42.49% of the national total. The existing paddy fields of 8.1 million hectares must be added. This is due to the large demand of rice from year to year.
- Chinese-Malaysian agribusiness group builds paddy fields in Indonesia
The Chinese-Malaysian agribusiness group builds paddy fields and integrated processing projects in Indonesia. With an investment of US $ 2 billion (Rp 20.3 trillion), the Chinese company hopes to enter the growing market in the country while meeting the supply of domestic rice. Wufeng is a major financier in the development and processing of rice and soybean in Subang, West Java, Indonesia. Amarak Malaysia is known to contribute 20% of the initial investment in the country.
- The high cost for rice production
Indonesia’s rice production costs are more expensive than some other Asian rice producers. Indonesia’s rice production costs reached Rp 4,079 per kilogram (kg). Meanwhile in China the cost is only Rp 3.661 per kg, Philippines Rp 3,224 per kg, Thailand Rp 2,291 per kg, even in Vietnam is only Rp 1699 per kg.
- A quarter of rice fields throughout Indonesia have switched functions
Until now almost 25% (a quarter) of rice fields throughout Indonesia have switched functions, one of them for infrastructure development. The problem of rice fields in Indonesia is increasingly eroded due to switching function or converted. Infrastructure development is thought to contribute to that. Infrastructure development has contributed to the elimination of lands that previously functioned as rice fields, especially in urban areas such as Jakarta.
There needs to be a careful and good thought related to the spatial plan so as not to undermine almost quarter of agricultural land has been converted into non-agricultural.
- Indonesian rice fields increased every decade
Indonesia’s rice field area in 2016 reached 8.19 million hectares (ha) or an increase of 1.16% from the previous year. Based on data from the Ministry of Agriculture, the number consists of 4.78 million ha of irrigated rice fields and 3.4 million ha of non irrigated rice fields.
In 1980, the area of wetland was only 7.7 million ha and then increased to 8.31 million ha in 1990. However, after that experienced a decline in the wake of the conversion of rice fields, especially in Java. As a result, paddy fields shrank to 7.74 million ha in 2005. However, after that it rebounded back above 8 million ha in 2009.
- The rice field lost usually happen in Java
The concentrated Indonesian population in Java makes space for housing, infrastructure and other space needs also increasing. Wetland fields are usually the victims so that the conversion of agricultural land. Meanwhile, the printing of new paddy fields experienced many obstacles.
- The conversion of rice field into infrastructure reaches 150.000 Ha every year
The conversion of paddy field into infrastructure land empirically reaches 150.000-200.000 hectare every year. Based on data from the Ministry of ATR / BPN in 2013, the existing rice fields in 2013 reached 7.75 million hectares. This figure shows continuous decline since 1990 which area of 8.48 million Ha, at 2,000 become 8.15 million Ha and in 2009 area of 8.1 million Ha.
If rice fields are reduced then it will affect the national food security. Therefore, the Ministry of ATR / BPN will set the paddy field into sustainable rice field.
That is the fact about rice fields in Indonesia. Although the land continues to decrease, Indonesia’s position as the largest rice producer is safe. This is because the majority of Indonesian people consume rice every day.