Like we all know, Bali is the paradise of Indonesia. Exist with high level of culture and history. Some of the cultures are already known by people, like Ngaben tradition for example. However, how about its history? What is history of Bali? Let’s take a moment to look at it. Now we learn from the earliest era first, and continuing to more advanced era. Lets start !
1. Prehistoric times
The prehistoric era of Bali is the beginning of the history of Balinese society, which is characterized by the life of the people at that time who have not known writing. Although in prehistoric times it has not been known to write the writing of his life history, but the evidence of life in the community at that time can also recount the existence of the prehistoric era took place in the period long enough, then the evidence that has been found up to now is certainly not Can meet all our expectations. (You might want to see : Balinese Wedding Traditions)
Thanks to the diligent and skillful research of foreign experts, especially the Dutch and Indonesian sons, the development of prehistoric times in Bali is getting brighter. The concern for the weariness in Bali was first given by a naturalist named Georg Eberhard Rumpf, in 1705 which was published in his book Amboinsche Reteitkamer. As a pioneer in archeological research in Bali is W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp who visited Bali in 1906 as a painter.
He traveled to explore Bali. And provide some notes, among others, about nekara Pejeng, Trunyan, and Pura Bukit Penulisan. Attention to this Pejeng nekara followed by K.C Crucq in 1932 who managed to find three parts mold nekara Pejeng in Pura Manuaba Village, Tegallalang.
The prehistoric research in Bali was followed by Dr. H.A.R. Van Heekeren with the result of writing entitled Sarcopagus on Bali in 1954. In 1963 prehistoric expert son of Indonesia Drs. R.P. Soejono did this digging carried out continuously in 1973, 1974, 1984, 1985. Based on the results of research that has been done on the findings from the coast of Gilimanuk Bay alleged that the site location Gilimanuk is a fishing village of the perundagian era in Bali. In this place now stands a museum.
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2. The entry of Hinduism
The end of prehistoric times in Indonesia is marked by the arrival of the nation and the influence of Hinduism. In the first centuries AD until approximately 1500, ie with the disappearance of the Majapahit kingdom is a period of Hindu influence. With the influences from India it ended the prehistoric era of Indonesia because of the acquisition of written information that incorporated the Indonesian people into the historical age.
Based on the descriptions found in 8th century AD inscriptions it can be said that the period of Ancient Bali’s history covers the period between the 8th century AD until the 14th century AD with the coming of Mahapatih Gajah Mada expedition from Majapahit that can defeat Bali. The name Balidwipa is not a new name, but has existed since ancient times. This can be known from several inscriptions, among them from the Blanjong Inscription issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD which mentions the word “Walidwipa”.( See also: Indonesian Angklung Facts)
Among the Balinese kings, many left behind written statements that also alluded to the picture of the composition of government at that time were Udayana, Jayapangus, Jayasakti, and Anak Wungsu. In controlling the government, the king is assisted by a Central Advisory Council. In the oldest inscription 882-914, this body is called the term “panglapuan”. Since the time of Udayana, the Central Advisory Board has been referred to as “pakiran-kiran i jro makabaihan”. This body consists of several people senapati and Shiva and Buddhist priests. (See also: Misunderstanding of Culture in Indonesia)
In the inscriptions before King Anak Wungsu mentioned some kind of art that existed at that time. However, it was only in the days of King Anak Wungsu that we can distinguish the type of art into two large groups, namely the royal arts and folk art. Of course the term art of this palace does not mean that art is closed completely for the people. Sometimes this art is shown to the people in the villages or in other words the art of this palace is not the monopoly of kings. ( See also: Natural Disaster in Indonesia)
In the field of religion, the influence of prehistoric times, especially from the megalithic era still feels strong. The belief in that era was focused on the worship of ancestral spirits who were symbolized in the form of worship buildings called pyramid terraces or staircase buildings. (Read also : Flag of Indonesia – Indonesia Military Power)
Sometimes, on top of the buildings are placed menhirs, ie monolithic stone poles as a symbol of the spirit of their ancestors. In Hindu times this is seen in the temple building similar to pundan berundak-steps. The belief in the gods of mountains, sea, and others originating from the times before the influx of Hinduism remained reflected in people’s lives in the days after the entry of Hinduism.
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3. The arrival of Gajah Mada Expedition
Gajah Mada Expedition to Bali was done when Bali was ruled by Bedahulu Kingdom with Raja Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten and Patih Kebo Iwa. By first killing Kebo Iwa, Gajah Mada led an expedition with Commander Arya Damar with the help of some arya. This attack resulted in a battle between the forces of Gajah Mada with the Kingdom Bedahulu. This battle resulted in the king Bedahulu and his son’s death. After Pasung Grigis surrender, there is a vacuum of government in Bali. For that, Majapahit appointed Sri Krishna Kepakisan to lead the government in Bali with the consideration that Sri Kresna Kepakisan has blood relation with Bali Aga residents. This is where Kepakisan came from.
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4. Gelgel Period
Due to incompetence Raden Agra Samprangan became king, Raden Samprangan replaced by Dalem Ketut Ngulesir. By Dalem Ketut Ngulesir, the center of government was moved to Gelgel (read / gɛl’gɛl /). It was at this time that the Gelgel Period and King Dalem Ketut Ngulesir was the first king. The second king is Dalem Watu Renggong (1460-1550). Dalem Watu Renggong ascended the throne with a stable royal heritage so that he could develop his ability and authority to prosper the Kingdom of Gelgel. Under the rule of Watu Renggong, Bali (Gelgel) reached its heyday. After Dalem Watu Renggong died he was replaced by Dalem Bekung (1550-1580), while the last king of Gelgel’s time was Dalem Di Made (1605-1686).
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5. Dutch Colonial Period
Since the kingdom of Buleleng has fallen into Dutch hands, the Dutch government has intervened to take care of the government in Bali. This was carried out by changing the name of the king as regional ruler by the name of regent for Buleleng and Jembrana areas and placing P.L. Van Bloemen Waanders as the first controleur in Bali. The governance structure in Bali is still rooted in the traditional governance structure, which is to keep traditional leadership in implementing governance in the regions. For in the area of Bali, the position of the king is the highest authority, which at the time of colonial rule was accompanied by a controleur.
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6. The Japanese Occupation Period
After going through several battles, the Japanese army landed on Sanur Beach on 18 and 19 February 1942. From this direction Sanur Japanese troops entering the city of Denpasar with no resistance whatsoever. Then, from Denpasar, Japan controls all of Bali. Originally laying the foundations of Japanese rule in Bali were the Japanese Army (Rikugun) troops. Later, when the atmosphere was stable, government control was left to the civilian government. Because during the Japanese occupation the mood was in a state of war, all activities were directed to the needs of war. The youth were educated to be the army of Defenders of the Homeland (PETA). For the Bali area, PETA was formed in January of 1944 whose educational programs and requirements were adjusted to PETA in Java.
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7. The Age of Independence
Following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, on August 23, 1945, Mr. I Gusti Ketut Puja arrived in Bali with the mandate of his appointment as Little Sundanese Governor. Since his arrival this is the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in Bali began to be disseminated to the villages. At that time began to be held preparations to realize the structure of government in Bali as a small area of Sunda.
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The final age ends our study today. If you want to go somewhere place for holiday, you must learn its history as well, not just enjoying all the spots. Because the history is important, to their life and also their existence. Okay that’s it, have a good day !