Education in Indonesia may not be as good as education in developed countries. However, in some points, Indonesia has first implemented a good education system for students. In terms of facilities and methods applied, Indonesia still needs improvement. However, in terms of availability of types of education, Indonesians have many options. Here are several types of school in Indonesia you can decide to choose for your study.
Home schooling or often known as homeschooling is an educational concept different from formal schooling. This concept was once considered bad for curbing the ability of children in socializing, but recently increasingly mushroomed.
As the name implies, learning activities are not implemented in a formal place but at home. Homeschooling students study under the direction of parents. Many parents are afraid to give this type of education to their children because of curriculum problems and the ability of parents to teach. But this era of obstacles can be overcome. The curriculum can be easily accessed for study. Parents who do not dare to teach themselves can also hire a tutor or private tutor.
- National School
National school is the result of the government’s efforts in educating the nation’s life. Being a national school means accredited by the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud) in several criteria. Some of these criteria include curriculum, facilities, school management, and alumni competency. National school is the school with the most number and interest by the people of Indonesia.
This type of school uses national curriculum standards in everyday learning process. The language of teaching and learning that used is Indonesian. National schools like these can be different organizers, either by government or private. Being organized by the government means the operational costs of the school come from national taxes. So, the organizers must always follow the curriculum changes set by the government.
- National Plus School
The plus word on a national plus school is not from the government? The word plus is actually given by the Association of National Plus Schools (ANPS). ANPS itself was established in 2000 and has the duty to establish the national plus school criteria. Therefore only a few government regulations govern this type of school.
National plus schools still follow the basic curriculum set by Kemendikbud but with some differences. For example, there are some subjects delivered with English. In addition there are also sometimes additional subjects such as Mandarin. Native speakers are also brought in to bring the international curriculum. The international curriculum is one of the Cambridge International Examination (CIE) and the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO).
In addition, the national plus schools generally have more diverse and facilitated extracurricular activities. Infrastructure facilities are also considered to be more adequate than national schools. These advantages are reasonable considering the cost of admission is more expensive than the national school.
Madrasahs are basically the same as the general school level such as elementary, junior high and high school. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) is equivalent to elementary school, Madrasah Tsawaniyah (MTs) is equivalent to junior high school, and Madrasah Aliyah (MA) is equivalent to SMA.
Madrasahs use a national curriculum such as a national school. The difference is at the institution which become the shelter. The national school is shaded by Educational Ministery, the madrasah is shaded by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kemenag). Although using the national curriculum, madrasah have an emphasis on Islamic religious learning.
- International School
This type of school is very different from the national school you used to know. Being an international school means using an accredited international curriculum. In contrast to national plus schools, international curriculum such as the International Baccalaureate Organization and Cambridge International Examination were adopted in total. Because of the total adoption of the international curriculum, the language of instruction is entirely in English.
The coolest thing to be a student at an international school is that you can use a super-complete facility. Call it the class fully using the cooler, learning is always using multimedia, and laboratories and classrooms are very superior.
Initially, an international school in Indonesia was established for the children of foreign workers residing in our country. But over time, international schools are also open to the general public. His teachers were many who graduated from abroad and also there were teachers who were imported from abroad. One of the excitements of being an international school student is being able to experience the diverse culture of many migrant friends.
- Nature school
The school of nature is an educational concept initiated by Lendo Novo. The beginning of the initiation of the school of nature is because the cost of education is increasingly unaffordable by the community. From this background, Lendo Novo is ambitious to establish a high quality but inexpensive school. One that makes schools expensive is their infrastructure. Next, he creates the concept of a natural school that uses nature as a means of learning.
Learning at this type of school is more widely practiced in open spaces. Classrooms remain, but without walls and windows. The process of teaching and learning emphasize on field practice than conventional learning. Many field activities are tailored to the place of the natural school. The examples are farming, raising, and farming.
The types of school in Indonesia based on the stage (7-16)
If you have read the types of school in Indonesia based on the system above, you would read these following list of the kinds of Indonesian school based on the stage.
Playing groups are non-formal education for young children under the age of five years (under-five). The Play Group is usually held during the day and is managed by the private sector.
- Kindergarten (TK)
Kindergarten (TK) is an education for early childhood ie age between 5.6 years. Usually the new children can finish kindergarten after the age of 6 years or enter the age of 7 years.
- Raudatul Athfal (RA)
Raudatul Athfal (RA) is the level of education equivalent to kindergarten (TK). It is managed by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA).
- Elementary School (SD)
Elementary School (SD) is the formal education in Indonesia at the lowest level, for children aged 6 – 12/15 years. Duration of 6 years consists of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
- Junior High School (SMP)
Junior High School (SMP) is a secondary school after graduating from primary school / MI. Duration of 3 years consists of grade 7, 8 and 9. Age of children attending Junior High School (SMP) are the teens between 12 – 15/17 years.
- Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs)
Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) is an equal or equal education with Junior High School (SMP). The difference is on the focus. MTs is focus on religious lesson.
- High School (SMA)
High School (SMA) is secondary education as a continuation of SMP / MTs. Duration of 3 years consists of 10th, 11th and 12th grade students. The teens who attend school are 15 – 18/20 years old.
- Vocational High School (SMK)
Vocational High School (SMK) is secondary education as a continuation of SMP / MTs. Vocational Secondary School (SMK) is a change of name of the previous school or previously have the designation of STM, SMEA, SMKK, SPSA, SPMA, SPK, SMF etc. Now the schools are uniformed with the name of Vocational High School (SMK).
- Madrasah Aliyah (MA)
Madrasah Aliyah (MA) is an equal or equivalent education with SMA, SMK or MAK. Madrasah Aliyah (MA) is secondary education as a continuation of SMP / MTs. Duration of 3 years consists of 10th, 11th and 12th grade students. The children who attend school are 15 – 18/20 years old.
- Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK)
Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK) is a form of formal education unit which is equivalent to SMA / SMK and MA. Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK) is managed and built by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA).
In conclusion, the kinds of school in Indonesia have been completed. Indonesian people could make their preference to study in what school with the fit budget and considerations. However, the government still needs to improve the system of education in Indonesia.