Education Growth in Indonesia – History
Indonesian education system is rumored to have not been able to satisfy all parties. There are still shortcomings there and here. Various issues related to Indonesian education continue to emerge. The quality of teachers, school eligibility, up to the assessment system was still being reviewed by the government.
However, when viewed from the history of Indonesian education, the government has tried several times to change the system and curriculum, in order to get the right dose to educate Indonesian children. Here is the education growth in Indonesia reviewed from the independence era.
- In the early period of Indonesian Independence
Early independence education was pursued to match and approach educational systems in developed countries. In the transition period 1945s – 1950s, the Indonesian people experienced various difficulties in the field of social economy, politics and culture, including education.
Among the number of school-age children there are only a few percent of them who can enjoy the school. So, the remaining 90% of Indonesia’s population is still illiterate. Therefore, immediately after the proclamation of independence, the government appointed Ki Hajar Dewantara as Minister of Education, Teaching and Culture (PP and K).
- The establishment of vocational school and some new universities
At the time of liberal democracy in the early 1950s education was regulated in the Provisional Act (UUDS) 1950. The formal schooling system at that time consisted of kindergarten, elementary, high school and high school. Adjustment efforts include: Bahasa Indonesia becomes the language of instruction for all Public Schools including private and subsidiary Schools, Education Implementation begins with Preparation of study obligations by preparing a 10 year learning obligation plan with Pasuruan and Jepara trial areas.
At this time, vocational schools began to be built. In addition, several new universities were established including Hasanuddin University in Makassar, Andalas University in Padang, Padjadjaran University in Bandung, and University of North Sumatra in Medan.
- The first application of character building
The transition from liberal democracy to guided democracy was marked by the issuance of Presidential Decree 5 July 1959. After the Presidential Decree of 5 July 1959, it was deemed necessary to strengthen the National Education System, Panca Wardana emerged, emphasizing the nation and character building. At that time the 1945 Constitution applies again.
The Schooling System during the period 1959-1965 included
(a) Preschool Education (5-7th): Kindergarten;
(b) SD (7-12 years): Elementary School, MI;
(c) Junior High School (13-15 years): SMP, SMEP, SKKP, ST, MTs;
(d) Senior High School (16-18 years): SMA, SMEA, STM, SPG, SMOA, MA;
(e) High Education (19-23 years): Universities, Institutes, Colleges.
- Education in Indonesia The New Order Period
Key points of policy in the field of education in the New Order period were directed to create wider learning opportunities and be balanced with the improvement of education quality. Especially higher education is directed to the target of students who are able to answer the challenge of modernization.
Education and Schooling systems include in this period included:
(a) The educational system is comprised of the school and out-of-school education channels;
(b) The school system consists of 3 levels, namely Basic Education, Secondary Education, and Higher Education. Education development programs include expansion and equity of education; improving the quality of education with the provision of educational tools, procurement of textbooks, procurement and quality improvement of teachers, curriculum change.
- 1968 Curriculum
This curriculum was the first integrated curriculum. Some subjects, such as History, Earth Sciences, and some branches of social science experience fusion into Social Sciences. Some subjects, such as Life Sciences, Natural Sciences, and so fused into Natural Science (IPS) or now called the 1968 birth science curriculum are political: replacing the 1964 Educational Plan imaged as a product of the Old Order.
The goal is the formation of true Pancasila people. The 1968 curriculum emphasizes the organizational approach of the subject matter: the Pancasila counseling group, basic knowledge, and special skills. There were 9 lessons for school.
- The different model of teaching and learning system in 1975
The 1975 curriculum emphasizes the purpose, so education is more efficient and effective. Teaching methods, materials, and objectives are detailed in Instructional System Development Procedures (PPSI). This period is known as the “unit of learning”, the lesson plan of each unit of discussion. Each unit of lesson is detailed again: general guidance, specific instructional goals (ICT), subject matter, lesson tools, teaching and learning activities, and evaluation. In the 1975 Curriculum the teachers were busy with various records of teaching and learning activities.
- The priority toward skill approach
The 1984 curriculum teaches the skill approach process. Although the priority of a process approached, the goal remained an important factor. This curriculum is also often called the “Enhanced Curriculum 1975”. Students’ position placed as studying subject such as observing something, grouping, to discuss, to report. This model is called Student Active Learning (CBSA) or Student Active Leaming (SAL).
- The implementation of local skills called MULOK
The 1994 curriculum is about combining the previous curricula that combines the goal-oriented 1975 Curriculum and the process approach that the Curriculum 1984 has. Student learning load is considered too heavy included national to local content. Content of local content adapted to the needs of their respective regions, such as regional language art, local skills, and others.
The various interests of community groups also insist that certain issues fall into the curriculum so that the 1994 Curriculum is transformed into a super-solid curriculum. The end of the Soeharto regime in 1998 was followed by the presence of the 1999 Curriculum Supplement. But the change is more to revise and reduce the burden of some material.
- Reformation Era
Education in the reform era of 1999 changed the face of the Indonesian education system through Law No. 22 of 1999, with this education becoming a decentralized development sector. The government introduced the model “School Based Management”. Meanwhile, to balance the need for quality human resources, then created a system “Competency Based Curriculum”.
Entering the year 2003 education is understood as: “a conscious and planned effort to realize the learning atmosphere and the learning process so that learners actively develop their potential to have spiritual power, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, as well as skills needed by nation and state.”
Education in this period has not yet been entirely successful. Because, the government has not given full freedom to design education in accordance with local needs and interests, such as determining the graduation of students is still regulated and determined by the government.
- During KBK (Competency Based Curriculum) 2004
Each lesson is parsed based on the competencies that students must achieve. This curriculum tends to Centralized Education which is structured by the Central Team in detail; Region / School only implement. The curriculum that is not endorsed by the decision / Regulation of the Minister of
Education is experiencing many changes compared to the previous Curriculum both from orientation, supporting theories of learning even the number of hours of study and the duration of each lesson. Based on this curriculum, the new government tested KBK in a number of school cities in Java Island, and big cities outside Java Island alone. The result is less than satisfactory.
- The freedom for the teacher about the method of teaching
Early 2006 KBK trial was stopped. Appears KTS or ” Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan”. A review of the content and the process of achieving the target of students’ lesson competencies to technical evaluation is not much different from the 2004 curriculum.
The most prominent difference in the Curriculum is more constructive so that more teachers are given the freedom to plan the learning according to the environment and condition of the students and the condition of the school is located. This is due to the basic skill (KD), the competency standard of graduates (SKL), the basic competence and basic competence (SKKD) of each subject for each educational unit has been established by the Ministry of National Education.
- Freedom for students to lead up the learning and teaching process
The 2013 curriculum has four aspects of assessment, namely aspects of knowledge, skills aspects, attitude aspects, and behavior. In addition, in the curriculum 2013 is more demanding students become more active to find other learning resources other than the teacher, so that students become free to open source of knowledge and more able to develop existing knowledge. In other words, the curriculum has given students the right to knowledge.
- The use of Computer Based Test for examination, learning and teaching system
Recently the technology in Indonesia starts to enter the world of education. Now the students could do the computer based test for the media of examination. Not just for examination, the students could also freely download the material lesson through internet. Through the digital era, hopefully the education in Indonesia will grow better in the future.
Those are the progress of education growth in Indonesia. Also it is not done significantly, the government has done the big effort to keep the education development keeps going on. As the good citizens, you have to support them.