Indonesia is richest country of its biodiversity than others. Then, Indonesia have the third largest rain forests. Its rain forests becomes home for several birds in the world. Now, there are approximately 1539 bird species, and one of them is beautiful creature in the world called Bird of Paradise.
Meanwhile, Bird of paradise’s family consists of 43 species. Its approximately 30 species in Indonesia. The other species are in the rain forests of Papua New Guinea as well as in the northeastern Australia. Most of the species are sexually dimorphic. Its means that male and female have different appearance. The Bird of Paradise male have more beautiful feathers to attract females especially during mating season.
On the other hand, The name “Paradise” is given due to its amazing feather. Ancient people believed that the creature is from the heaven and deserve to be called as the incarnation of gods. In addition, the story behind its naming is because in the past, people sell the birds to Europe by mummifying the birds without its feet as a decoration. Therefore, European believes that the bird is naturally footless. They assume that the birds is always up in the sky.
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The body shape of the birds is generally like a crow with the strong beak and feet. Its beak is modified according to the food and the way a species find a food. Then, the size of bird is various, while the tiniest bird is approximately 15 cm with the weight is about 50 gr. Moreover, The biggest bird is about 110 cm and 430 gr with average size is about 25-45 cm long. On the other hand, their basic foods are fruits and insects.
In addition, the main characteristic of bird of paradise is on its plumage. The males have a gorgeous plumage and even long tail extensions. Then, the feather mostly has a bright color with the combination of some colors. Such as red, yellow, gold, black, white, and blue.
While, the female plumage colored duff to black. Nine species of bird of paradise are sexually monomorphic. Its characteristic is shoe tha they don’t have an outstanding different, the color of the plumage is generally the same. On the other hand, Bird of paradise female lays one or two eggs. The incubation period is 17-21 days.
The Bird of paradise habitats is in the tropical rain forests of Asia pacific especially on eastern Indonesia such as Maluku and Papua, eastern Australia and Papua new guinea. Bird of paradise live in lowland and tend to on a safe place. In Papua itself, only some place that there are birds of paradise in large number. However, Bird of paradise can be easily found in the Jayawijaya mountain in height range from 2.700 to 4.000 meters above the sea level.
The habit of bird of paradise is different between the species according to their sexually types. The male dimorphic birds mate more than one female bird. In the mating season, the male displays a dance with its bright feather and long tails. They are hanging up and down on a tree branch to attract females. Then, the male demonstrate dance alone or sometimes in the form of competition.
While, the female choose the most attractive male bird to mate with. After that, they pass over the least attractive male. After mating, female would back to the nest and raises her offspring alone. On the other hand, the monomorphic types, Male and female mate one partner in a time. Some species mate one partner for life. And after mating, the male and female raises their offspring together. Then, Bird of Paradise usually eat fruits and arthropods, as well as nectar and small vertebrates.
Beside all of the species of the bird of paradise. Here are the most popular bird of paradise which evaluated as the least concerns on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) red list of threatened species.
1. Lesser Bird of Paradise
The Lesser Bird of Paradise in Indonesia known as Cendrawasih Kuning Kecil. This bird size is medium with the length approximately 32 cm. The color is brownish red with yellow crown and back brownish yellow. The male bird has green colored fur on the throat and a pair of long yellow and white tail. The female bird’s color is brown on the head and white on the chest. It is originally from the island near Misool and Yapen islands.
The males are polygamous, and perform courtship displays in leks (group of males). The female usually lays two pinkish eggs with dark markings in a nest in a tree high above ground. Its diet consists mainly of fruits and insects.
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2. Raggiana Bird of Paradise
The Raggiana Bird of Paradise is also called Count Raggi’s Bird of Paradise. This bird is 34 cm long, has grayish red-brown feather, yellow eyes and grayish brown feet. The male bird has a yellow crown and green feather on the throat. Female birds are smaller than the male, colored brown. The original habitats is on the southern and the southeast Irian island.
The female usually lays a clutch of one to two (usually two) pinkish buff eggs. The incubation period is 18 days in the wild and 20 days in captivity. As in all polygamous birds-of-paradise, the female alone assumes all incubation duties.
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3. Ribbon-tailed Astrapia
Ribbon-tailed Astrapia can be the most fantastic species than others. It has the longest tail with approximately three times their body length. Then, the length of adult bird is up to 32 cm while its tail is 1 m long. In addition, the color of male birds are black and green, while the female birds are brown. Its habitats can be found in the center of Irian island.
Meanwhile, the ribbon-tailed astrapia is distributed and become endangered animals in Indonesia. Its moved to forests in western part of Papua central highlands.
Then, like many other ornamental birds-of-paradise, the male is polygamous. Moreover, the ribbon-tailed astrapia is the most recently discovered as one bird-of-paradise.
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4. Blue Bird of Paradise
The length of adult blue bird is up to 31 cm long. Then, the body color is black with the dark brown eyes as well as graying feet. The feather of male wings are blue, so that, it called Blue Bird. Its originally from the southeast of Papua New Guinea.
In addition, the male is polygamous. The daily habits of them such as, the male usually hangs from a branch upside down. Then, the black oval at the center chest is enlarged and contracted properly. As well as its violet blue color of plumes spread out in a fan. Its swaying the back and forth of body while the central tail feathers form two impressive arches naturally goes down.
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5. Red Bird of Paradise
It is a 33 cm long bird, with the yellow beak and red feather.The male has an emerald green face,. Then, there are a pair of elongated black in tail wires. As well as dark green feather pompoms above each eye.
In addition, there are a train of glossy crimson red plumes along whitish tips in breast side. On the other hand, the male measures up to 72 cm long, including the ornamental red plumes that require at least six years to fully attain.
On the other hand, the female or red paradise is quitely similar. However, it has smaller in size, with a dark brown face and has no ornamental red plumes. The diet consists mainly of fruits, berries and arthropods. the females are smaller than male. It originally from Raja Ampat, Papua.
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6. King of Saxony Bird of Paradise
It is only 22 cm long, with the wired feather 41 cm that used to attract females. The body color is black, with yellow eyes and grayish feet.
Meanwhile, the female size is smaller than males that even less than 19 cm. Originally from the rain forest Jayawijaya mountains.
The adult King of Saxony bird-of-paradise is approximately 22 cm long. The male is black and yellow with a dark brown eyes, brownish-grey legs, a black bill with a bright aqua-green beak, and two remarkably long (up to 50 cm) scalloped, enamel-blue brow-plumes that can be independently erected at the bird’s will. The unadorned female is grayish brown with barred underparts.
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7. Wilson’s Bird of Paradise
Wilson’s bird of paradise sized small with only about 21 cm long. The male bird’s body colored black and red with yellow stripe on the neck. The beak is green, the feet is blue and have a pair curved purple tail. While, the female bird’s size are smaller than the male.
Wilson’s Bird of Paradise is an Indonesian endemic, the Wilson’s bird-of-paradise is distributed to the hill and lowland rainforests of Waigeo and Batanat Islands of west papua. On the other hand, Wilson’s Bird of Paradise food consists mainly of fruits and small insects.
8. Goldie’s Bird of Paradise
Goldie’s bird-of-paradise is large, approximately 33 cm long, and olive-brown. The male has a yellow and dark green plumage with a lavender grey breast, yellow eyes and grey colored beak, mouth and feet. It is adorned with large crimson ornamental flank plumes and two long tail wires.
On the other hand, the male is distinguished by its lavender grey breast plumage. Unadorned female has an olive-brown plumage with brown below. eastern Papuan Islands. The diet consists mainly of fruits.
The Goldie’s Bird of Paradise are endemic to Papua New Guinea, the Goldie’s bird of paradise is distributed in the hill forests of Fergusson and Normanby Islands of the eastern Papuan Islands. The diet consists mainly of fruits.
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9. Magnificent Bird of Paradise
The magnificent bird-of-paradise is small, up to 26 cm-long, with extremely complex plumage. The male has seemingly incandescent yellow wings, an iridescent-green breast shield, blue feet, and is adorned with a yellow mantle on his neck. He has two long, curved, blue-green tail feathers.
Meanwhile, the female is a comparatively drab olive-brown bird with black-barred buff underparts. She lays two creamy yellow eggs. The magnificent bird-of-paradise is distributed amongst the hill and mid-mountain forests of Papua New Guinea and surrounding islands.
Their diet consists mainly of fruits. The male is polygamous and performs an elaborate courtship display.
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10. Victoria’s Riflebird
The Victoria’s riflebird also known as the duwuduwu to the Yidinji people, is a bird of paradise endemic to the region of northeastern Queensland Australia.
As well as insects, they eat fruits from the trees, some which they peel by holding the fruit with one foot and removing the skin with their bill. The smallest bird, it measures between 23–25 cm.
Males have an iridescent purple sheen plumage, which becomes more blue-green on the head and more bronze on the lower breast.
The throat is velvety black with a metallic green and blue triangular patch in the center. Females have a pale eyebrow, and the buff underparts are faintly barred with brown.
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11. Princess Stephanie’s Astrapia
Princess Stephanie’s astrapia is a medium-sized, approximately 37 cm long, black bird-of-paradise with a blue-green and purple head. Then, it has silky plumage below which very long.
In addition, there are broad purplish-black in its central tail feathers. While, the female has a dark brown bird with a bluish-black head. As well as black-barred cinnamon-brown in their underparts.
On the othe hand, this type of Paradise bird is one of endemic animals which adapted to the mountain forests. Basically in central and eastern Papua.
Princess Stephanie’s astrapia is endemic to the mountain forests in central and eastern Papua New Guinea. Princess Stephanie’s astrapia was discovered by Carl Hunstein in 1884. It was named in honor of Princess Stephanie of Belgium.
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12. Twelve-wired Bird of Paradise
The Twelve-wired bird of paradise is a medium-sized, approximately 33 cm (13 in) long, velvet black and yellow bird of paradise. The male has a red eyes, long black beak and rich yellow plumes along his flanks. From the rear of these plumes emerge twelve blackish, wire-like filaments, which bend back near their bases to sweep forward over the bird’s hindquarters.
On the other hand, the female one is a brown bird with black-barred buff underparts. Their feet are strong, large-clawed and pink in color. In addition, Most of them can be found several areas which is flat lowlands and rain forests.
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13. Paradise Crow
The paradise-crow also known as the silky crow, is a medium-sized crow-like bird of paradise. It is one of the few monogamous birds of paradise, the paradise crow is endemic to lowland forests of North Maluku Indonesia. The diet consists mainly of fruits and insects.
The paradise-crow is approximately 34 cm long with all-dark, soft and silky plumage. It has a black beak, and a call reminiscent of a dog’s bark. Both sexes are similar; the female is slightly smaller than the male. The nominate subspecies has the least or no white patch on the inner flight feathers.
On the other hand, the breeding season is approximately December to June. In addition, the diet of the paradise crow usually eat fruit as their mainly foods, as well as some supplement from arthropods both of which are foraged mainly from dense canopy and middle foliage.
14. Glossy-mantled Manucode
This birds are distributed to the lowlands of Papua New Guinea as well as nearby islands. The glossy-mantled manucode live in lowland rain forest, river and monsoon forests, forest edge, swamp-forest and woodlands.
The glossy-mantled manucode is medium-sized, around 42 cm long, glossed green, blue and purple black with a red eyes, black beak, long graduated tail and somewhat elongated upper breast and neck feathers. The female is a slightly smaller than the male. They tend to move alone or in pairs.
Then, they spend most of their time looking for food among the branches of trees.They are not particularly timid, but it is easier to hear their calls or flights rather than observe them directly. The diet consists mainly of fruits, figs and arthropods.
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15. Jobi Manucode
The Jobi manucode is a species of crow-like types. Its distributed in lowland forests of Jobi island and northern Papua New Guinea. Then, the diet consists mainly of fruits and arthropods. Then, like other manucodes, it is sexually monomorphic and monogamous.
The Jobi manucode has medium-size up to 34 cm long, greenish blue, black and purple-glossed with red eyes, lightly crinkled bluish short upper breast and neck feathers. Both sexes are similar in appearance, however the female is slightly smaller and duller. This species resembles the crinkled-collared manucodes in appearance, distinguished by its neck feathers and by having a shorter tail..
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16. Crinkled-collared Manucode
The crinkle-collared manucode is found throughout lowlands and hill forests in mainland Papua New Guinea and Misool island of west Papua. The diet consists mainly of fruits and figs.
The crinkle-collared manucode is medium-sized, up to 36 cm long, greenish blue, black and purple-glossed with a long graduated tail, red eyes and iridescent green breast feathers. Both sexes are similar in appearance, however the female is slightly smaller and less purple.
In addition, this species resembles the Jobi manucodes in appearance, distinguished by its bronzed yellow-green neck feathers.
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17. Superb Bird of Paradise
The Superb bird of paradise, is genus Lophorina types. Superb bird of paradise is a small, approximately 26 cm long. The male is black with an iridescent green crown.
Then, there are blue-green breast and also a long velvety blackerectile cape. Its covering his back. While, the female is a reddish-brown bird with in below there is brownish barred buff around. The younger one is similar to the female. The species has low population of females. Superb bird of paradise lead the species which have the most bizarre and elaborate courtship displays. After carefully and meticulously preparing a “dance floor”.
Moreover, after the dance floor, the average female rejects 15-20 potential suitors before consenting to mate. On the other hand, the superb bird of paradise is distributed throughout rain forests of Papua New Guinea.
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As mentioned above, with the approximately 43 species, is a quite large number of species. However, Bird of paradise now become a protected animal due to its existence is decreased dramatically in the past few years. People hunt the birds because of its beauty and its high profitability.