Various living creatures that exists in Indonesia are very diverse. The massive variation of living creatures in Indonesia flora and fauna are scattered diversely. Indonesia is a country whose territory is massive and has many variety of living things be it on land, sea or air.
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When we’re talking about the flora and fauna in Indonesia then it’s like counting the hays in a given fields because of the diversity of fauna and flora in Indonesia that are very diverse. One of the things that make Indonesia has a diversity of fauna and flora that much because Indonesia has a geographical location very conducive to creation and the residency of the fauna and flora. The tropical climate in Indonesia is one factor that will always support them.
Soil fertility and the growth of a wide variety of plants (flora) became one of the important factor of the causes of fauna population that is very diverse. Plants that acts as food and shelter for the fauna grow in Indonesia throughout the year. This is what makes Indonesia has an assortment of rare fauna that are not owned by other countries.
To know more about the flora and fauna diversity in Indonesia then you should be aware of many kinds of flora and fauna in Indonesia as described below.
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Types of Flora in Indonesia
There are several types of Flora in Indonesia, such as:
Jasmine belongs to the genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae). Jasmine is a flower plant with ornamental shrubs trunk-ed upright form that can live for years. Jasmine is a species floras of South Asia. The spreading starting from Hindustan to Indochina and the Malay Archipelago.
This flower is one of national interest in Indonesia (flower of the nation) in addition to Padma giant (Rafflesia Arnoldii) and orchids. Jasmine flower also become a national flower of Philippines.
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This type of flower consists of 200 species of native plants of tropical and warm temperate regions. However, there are only about a 8 to 9 species that are cultivated, while others grow wild in the forest because it has not found the economic potential and its benefits. Moreover, Jasmine also one of Indonesian National Flower.
The orchid has a latin name of Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest species of flowers in Indonesia. The orchids habitat scattered across many tropical areas, but there is also the existence of the flower type in the circumpolar region till the the humid tropics region. Orchid is one of the plants that live attaching itself on another tree, but orchids is not parasitic flower. They are able to live independently despite sticking on another tree. Therefore orchids are found in the woods sticking to the big trees and the slope of mountainsides.
3. Corpse flower
Corpse flower or suweg (in local language reference to these type of vegetative) with Latin Amorphophallus titanum Becc, is an endemic plant of Sumatra. Its known as the largest flower variation type. Then, it was called the corpse flower because this flower emit foul smell aroma, the foul smell is actually used to attract insects, beetles or flies to pollinate the flowers.
This plant has two state of life which appeared alternatively, namely vegetative state and generative state. On the vegetative state, the leaves and stems appears. After some time then vegetative organs will wilt and the tuber went dormant.
Then, if the flower has sufficient food reserves and environmental supports then the corpse flower will appear. However, when food reserves are low then the leaves will reappears instead.
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4. Rafflesia Arnoldii
Padma giant in Latin Rafflesia is a parasite plant that is famous for a huge flower size, even the biggest flower in the world. This flower grows in network vines and does not have leaves so that the plant is not able to photosynthesize.
This flower is composed of 27 species and all of the species is found in Southeast Asia. This plants has no physical roots, no stems, or leaves.
Rafflesia is a parasite plant that lives on vines in the genus Tetratigma. Then, the roots spread in the network vine that propagate the host plants.
Thus Rafflesia Arnoldii is a rare plant species then by the Provincial government of Bengkulu, Rafflesia flower has become the symbol of the province. And was designated as a protected plant and must be preserved.
5. The Semar bag (Nepenthes)
Nepenthes is a unique plant that prey on insects who come near it, this type of plant Nepenthes is included in monotipik familia, consisting of 130 species. The habitat with the largest species exists in Borneo and Sumatra. Nepenthes generally has three kinds of pouches, that is upper pouch, lower pouch and the pouch rosette. Top pouch is a pouch of adult plants, upper pouch are often used to catch animals such as flies or flying mosquitoes. Meanwhile, Lower pouch bag is produced on the part of young plants lying on the ground, and has two wings articles used to help for soil insects or ants to climb up the bag and finally plunged into liquid enzymes in the pouch.
On the other hand, while pockets rosette grows on the leaf rosette.However, sometimes the pockets rosettes produce some kind pouch shaped like a mix of upper pouch and lower pouch. This plant has a very wide distribution from the coast to the highlands, for this Nepenthes are divided into two types, namely the type of highland and lowland species, although most species grow in the highlands.
6. Sandalwood (cendana)
Sandalwood or a fragrant sandalwood are trees that produce sandalwood and sandalwood oil. This wood is used as a spice add-on, a combined mixture of perfumes, incense ingredients, aromatherapy, and other fragrances type.
In Indonesia, this wood are found in East Nusa Tenggara, although now can also be found in various parts of Indonesia, such as in Java, Sumatra and other Regions.
Sandalwood is a parasitic plant throughout its life, its sprouts needed a host to support its plant growth, because the roots themselves are not sufficient of supporting life.
Tree resin (pohon damar) has a Latin name Agathis dammara that is a member of conifers and a plant native to Indonesia. Damar spread in Maluku, Sulawesi, Sumatra to the Philippines. In Java, this plant is cultivated to for its sap. The sap is then used for procession into copal.
Resin tree is a large tree with a height of up to 65m, with a cylindrical rod diameter of about 1.5m. The resin can grow naturally in lowland rain forests till an altitude of 1,200 meters above sea level.
However, for the cultivation of this plant is needed to be done in the mountains as its grown there.
8. Edelweiss Java
Java or Senduro Edelweiss flower (Anaphalis javanica) is an endemic plant of alpina or montana in various high mountains of the archipelago.
Edelweiss is a pioneer plant for young volcanic wild land and were able to sustain their survival on the barren land.
Edelweiss flowers usually appear between April and August that are very popular for insects. Edelweiss today is the kind of flower that is very rare, because people often take the parts of edelweiss and take the flower down from the mountain for aesthetic reasons as well as spiritual or just a souvenir and memento.
In February until October 1988 there were 636 stems recorded that had been taken from Pangrano Gunung Gede National Park, which is one of the last preservation of this plant.
9. Leaf Umbrella
Johannesteijsmannia or known as giant leaf is a similar palm plants that have a large and wide leaves. Johannesteijsmannia is one of the plants in Indonesia precisely located in North Sumatra. This plant can be found near Gunung Leuser National Park.
Leaf umbrella is a plant species that grow individually. The long leaves have a size of approximately 6 meter with 1 meter wide. These plants are not resistant to exposure to direct sunlight, therefore this plant is often found growing among dense trees. The existence of the giant plant is diminishing because of the many fires that the tree provides also reduced hence the rare existence
Ulin is a kind of a big tree that is often called the iron tree which is a typical plant from Borneo. This tree is capable of producing very strong wood that is widely used for the construction of buildings, bridges, houses, electricity poles and ship building.
Ulin is a wet tropical forest tree species that grow naturally in the area of southern Sumatra and Kalimantan. Ulin is regarded as a major tree species that can reach 50m high with a diameter of 120cm. This plant grows in the lowlands reaching the height of 400 meter. However, because this tree is quite difficult to bred so the tree population has been in declined.
Types of Fauna In Indonesia
Then, there are several fauna lived in Indonesia, such as:
Komodo is one species of mammals that’s only owned by Indonesia, the Latin name Varanus Komodensis. Komodo is the largest lizard species that exist in this world and live only on the island of Komodo.
Currently Komodo become one of the animals included in the category of animals that are very protected because the fauna is highly vulnerable to extinction. Fauna preservation is maintained with the establishment of national park for the fauna that is called Komodo National Park specially set up for them.
Fauna species of giant lizard was discovered in 1910 by a researcher from the west. A very large size with an average length of 2-3 meters makes it very deservingly referred to as a giant. This is a carnivores who love to hunt and prey on larger animals and also has a poisonous bite that is lethal to its prey.
2. Orang Utan
Both of these species live only in Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan population in Indonesia reached 90% and the rest are scattered in the area of Sabah and Sarawak State of Malaysia. Currently the population of orang-utans also began to enter the United Nations red list because it has the potential to become extinct.
On the other hand, Orang utan is one of endangered animals in Indonesia. This situation is also strengthened by the inclusion of an orangutan in Annex 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and flora. Therefore many Indonesian citizens attempt to maintain orangutan sustainability. A comfortable habitat for orangutans is at an altitude of 500 m above sea level, but the study also found that some populations that are in the mountains with an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level able to live harmoniously.
In Latin, Sumatran tigers are called Panthera tigris sumatrae. This type of tiger are regarded to be native tiger species that come from the island of Sumatra which included subspecies that still survive to this day. The body type of this tiger is the smallest body size than other species of tigers with the darkest color among all species.
Male tiger has a body length of about 92 inches from head to tail and weigh about 140 kg with a height of 60 cm. While the tigress has a length of about 78 inches and weighs about 91 kg. The Population of wild Sumatran tigers currently only averaging around 400-500 and are included in the classification of critically endangered species.
Destruction of its habitat are the greatest threat to this population. It was recorded about 66 Sumatran tigers were killed between 1998 – 2000. In addition to the killing of wild Sumatran tigers, they are often also trafficked by irresponsible party. Trading tiger body parts in Indonesia is getting worse nowadays.
4. The Java rhino
Java rhino or rhinoceros is a member of the family Rhinoceryotidae which is one of five species that still exist today. The rhino has the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros and has similar thick skin which resembles armor. Javan rhinoceros have a length of about as high as 3 m and width as 2m. Although they are called the Java rhino, but this animal is not limited only to animals that are found exclusive on the island of Java. This rhino was once regarded as the most popular rhino that’s spread across Asia.
The population of rhino is very critical at this time, the possibility of classifying a Java Rhino as an existing rarest mammals on earth are getting into motions in the United Nations. About 50 rhinos live in Ujung Kulon National Park. Then, no more than eight Javan rhinos lived in the free habitat of national park Cat Tien in Vietnam. Illegal poaching and habitat losses are one of the factor contributing to the decreasing of rhino population
5. The Sumatran rhino
Sumatran rhino or two-horned Asian rhinoceros, which is an endangered species of the family Rhinocyerotidae and classified as one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exist. Sumatran rhinos are the only species of the genus Diceroryhinus that’s still exist. This rhino is the smallest rhinoceros, although still relatively large mammals.Same with the Java rhino, rhino species population is also endangered, currently estimated to be only six rhino in populations on the wild forest, four are located in Sumatra, one rhino in Kalimantan and one in peninsular Malaysia.
Sumatran rhino numbers are hard to determine, because these rhinos are solitary animals that lived scattered. By 2015, the estimated number of those remaining are 80 rhinos only, and researchers estimated that Sumatran rhino in east of the northern part of Borneo have become extinct.
6. The Sumatran elephant
Sumatran elephant is the largest mammal in Indonesia, and weigh up to 6 tons, with growth as high as 3.5 meters at the shoulder length.
Sumatran elephant is a subspecies of the Asian elephant who only exist to the island of Sumatra. This type of elephant posture is smaller than the Indian elephant.
As many as 65% of the population was decimated by human activity and 30% being killed or poisoned by humans. Its population is declining and endangered.
Sumatran elephant like to live in the habitat with lowland forest. In the past, when their habitat is not disturbed, the elephant held extensive migration. Their movement generally follow the river flow. Elephants move from mountain regions to the coastal plains during the dry season and up the hill one when the rain came to live. Sumatran elephants have five nails on the front foot and four nails on the hind legs. Adult Sumatran elephants in the day need to consume food to 150 kilograms and 180 liters of water / day.
Anoa is a species endemic to Sulawesi, as well as the mascot of Southeast Sulawesi province. There are two types of Anoa that is mountains Anoa and lowland Anoa. Both are living in the forest that is not disturbed by humans.
The way to distinguish these two types of Anoa is based on its shape and body size. Low land Anoa is relatively smaller, short tail, soft and has a circular horn.
While the mountains anoa have a larger body size, long tail, white feet and has a large horn. Anoa similar to the buffalo, has a body weight of about 150-300 kg and a height of 75 cm.
Since 1960 anoa were included into the classified of natural fauna that are of endangered status. The last five years of the population of Anoa were dramatically decreased. It is currently estimated 5000 left only for the surviving Anoa. Hunting activity is the main reason of the extinction of populations of Sulawesi’s endemic fauna.
8. Kangaroo Papua
Papuan kangaroo is the smallest kangaroo species in the world. Weighing only about 3-6 kg, a length of about 90 cm.
Fauna of this type is one type of fauna that are protected from extinction and comes from the region of Papua. Papuan kangaroo found only in Papua that are located in area of the lower mainland, southern jungle region of Papua and Papua New Guinea. Papuan kangaroo consists of two genus that is tree kangaroo and ground kangaroo.
Tree kangaroos used to spend most of its life in the trees. But tree kangaroos also come to the ground to look for a water to drink. Tree kangaroo has a more pointed snout than the ground kangaroos. With its long tail and rounded shape from its head to tail. While the ground kangaroo leg size is shorter in the front. Having a rather blunt snout and hairless, with a tapered tail to the tip.
9. Bird of Paradise (Burung Cendrawasih)
Bird of Paradise is a family member of the order of Passerriformes Paradisyaeidae. Birds of paradise are found in eastern Indonesia.
This type of birds is famous because it has a beautiful colorful feathers. Cenderawasih bird is often regarded as a bird of paradise. It is prudent if the Cendrawasih bird is said to be a bird of paradise, This type of bird mascot of Papua does have certain beauty with its fur color.
Thus of its beauty that has made the existence of this bird to become increasingly threatened.
Hunting and trapping of the bird for trade as well as wild life habitat destruction become some of the main causes of the gradual extinction of this increasingly scarce bird. Cenderawasih attractive fur color is usually a combination of several colors such as white, blue, red, black, brown, orange, yellow, green, and purple. This bird is more attractive with the presence of colorful and unique elongated feathers that grow from the beak, wings or its head.
10. Jalak Bali
Bali starling is a species of warbler bird with a medium size, about 25 cm long. The hallmark of this bird is all round white fur all over his body except for a black line on the tail and on the its bluish cheeks
Bali starling is endemic to the island of Bali and found only on the western part of the island of Bali, the Bali starling crowned in 1991 as a symbol of the fauna in the province of Bali.
Bali starling is a type of bird that is most sought after by collectors as pet birds because it looks pretty. The illegal hunting in its habitat contributed to the cause of the increasing scarcity for Bali starling to be found.
Then, to prevent their extinction of Bali starling, many great zoo create breeding programs around the world to to preserve this type of Bali starling.
The above explanation about Flora and Fauna may gives you the exclusivity of Indonesia as a heaven for many species and will give you a reason to maintain the preservation of our environment for the continuation of the lives of fauna and flora in Indonesia.